DIY NAS: EconoNAS 2019

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When I built my first DIY NAS back in 2012, I had a specific budget I was working within and I worked really hard to pick out components that would maximize the value out of that budget. As the years progressed and I did other DIY NAS builds, they took two different paths: my idea of an ideal DIY NAS and a more economical build, the EconoNAS. Aspects of each of these types of DIY NAS builds remind me of my very first NAS build, but I’ve known for a long time that my very first NAS build was actually an EconoNAS.

Over the years, the EconoNAS has been strictly focused on the bottom line. I was always trying to cram as much storage as I possibly could into the least expensive build I could manage. This year, I took a step back and tried to focus on what I was interested in when building my first NAS: value.

Making value an emphasis is tricky for a number of reasons, but most of all value is subjective. There are aspects and features of the parts that I shop for that I value enough to spend more money on, and there are others that I am not. I always try and explain and rationalize what I value, but not everyone will agree, which is okay! Use the comments below to explain and justify your own valuation!

With the DIY NAS: 2019 EconoNAS, I tried to put myself in the mindset I found myself in back in 2012. I strove to make my decisions in choosing the components around fitting as many features as I could into a small budget. This year I didn’t really have a concrete dollar figure in my head when I was shopping, while I knew that I was okay with spending more than $300 but spending $400 seemed like it’d definitely be too much. I think this is probably a smaller budget than I put myself on in 2012—but I’ve learned quite a bit about NAS building in those years!


All the Parts Antec NSK4100 #1 Antec NSK4100 #2 Antec NSK4100 #3 Thermaltake TR2 430W Power Supply ASUS Prime B450M-A Motherboard AMD Ryzen 3 2200G Crucial Ballistix 16GB (4x4GB) DDR4 RAM Sandisk Ultra Fit 16GB x2 Brian's Face Spray Painted #1 Brian's Face Spray Painted #2


CPU & Motherboard

Right off the bat, I knew I was likely to drop one of the main features that I liked about my very first NAS—it was little! For whatever reason, in 2012, I completely lucked out. I found a Mini-ITX motherboard with 5 or 6 onboard SATA ports and an integrated CPU that was passively cooled for well under $100. That motherboard was on sale at the time and nearing the end of its technological relevance. Since then, I’ve rarely found things that match it in both features and price. Similar motherboards exist, just nowhere near that price point. Each of those features carries a price premium that I wouldn’t be able to afford in this year’s EconoNAS.

Unwilling to pay that premium, I looked for value in the motherboard. And right now, I think there’s tremendous value in AMD’s Ryzen motherboards. A lot of that comes from the fact that the AM4 socket supports so many different CPUs, including a generation of CPUs that hasn’t been released quite yet. The ability to be able to upgrade the CPU in the future is promising. I wound up selecting the ASUS Prime B450M-A (specs) motherboard. At just under $80, its feature set was enticing. In particular, the following features caught my eye:

  • Supports AMD AM4 CPUs
  • 6x SATA 6Gb/s connector(s)
  • 1x PCIe 3.0/2.0 x16 (x8 or x16 mode depending on GPU) slot
  • 2x PCIe 2.0 slots
  • Micro ATX form factor

The biggest thing I liked about the ASUS Prime B450M-A is its flexibility. It supports a wide range of CPUs, including CPUs that haven’t been released yet. It has enough SATA ports to build a fine NAS out of, but if you wanted to stick a bunch more drives in it, it’s got plenty of PCIe slots to support the added SATA/SAS controller cards you’d need to expand the drives.

Typically, when building an EconoNAS, I find the cheapest CPU that’ll work in the motherboard I picked out and that’s it. But considering my emphasis on value, I took a step back and looked at the prices and features of a wider set of CPUs. Ultimately, I zeroed in on the AMD Ryzen 3 2200G CPU (specs). Its base clock speed of 3.5GHz and 4 cores seemed well-suited for the NAS tasks, plus I’d hoped it’d be up to the task of acting as the hypervisor for a virtual machine or two under bhyve.

RAM

Choosing RAM for the EconoNAS is usually a bit easy too. I take a look at the bare minimum recommended by FreeNAS and I find as inexpensive of a kit as I can for that amount. Much like I did in selecting the prior components, my focus on value caused me to branch from that approach again in picking RAM. Because I’d hoped that the EconoNAS would be able to run a virtual machine or two, I opted for a 16GB kit of 2666MHz DDR4 memory from Crucial (specs). For the “big” DIY NAS builds, I choose ECC RAM, but I don’t think ECC RAM is necessary for your DIY NAS and it didn’t present enough value to me to incorporate into this EconoNAS build.

Case and Power Supply

The Micro ATX form factor of the ASUS Prime B450M-A motherboard that I picked offers a tempting choice at building a compact EconoNAS, which was nearly as tempting as it was expensive. Unfortunately, small cases that fit six (or more) 3.5” drives are simply expensive. Instead, I saved quite a few dollars in choosing the Antec NSK4100 (specs). The case’s biggest selling point was that it boasted a total of 11 drive bays:

  • 3x external 5.25” bays
  • 1x external 3.5” bay
  • 6x internal 3.5” bays
  • 1x internal 2.5” bay

With the exception of the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition, I’ve only bought 3.5” drives. The fact that the case could support up to 10 different 3.5” drives—with the help of a few drive adapters—was really quite compelling.

Of all the components that I shopped for, the power supply is about the only component where I went bargain hunting. In choosing the Thermaltake TR2 430w, I was simply looking at something which is at least 400 watts, inexpensive (under $50), and fairly well-reviewed. The TR2 comes in 500W and 600W as well, but I can’t really imagine needing that much power. I budgeted about 200 watts to the CPU, motherboard, and RAM, with the remaining 200-230 to support hard drives. I tend to budget around 15 watts per drive. Ultimately, I’m pretty confident that you’d fill up all the Antec NSK4100’s eleven drive bays without needing to upgrade the power supply.

FreeNAS Flash Drive

On my very first DIY NAS, I wound up trying to save space by mounting the USB drive internally and proceeded to put the least-expensive, but well-reviewed, USB drive I could find in there. And that USB drive lasted probably around a year. In buying the drive and the header to plug it directly into the motherboard, I’d spent more money than I would’ve had I just picked a nice and compact USB drive. When I replaced that failed USB drive, I picked up a Sandisk Cruzer Fit and I’ve pretty much stayed true to those USB drives across all my NAS builds.

For this year’s EconoNAS, I went with the 16GB SanDisk Ultra Fit. In this process, I also learned how easy it is to mirror the USB boot drive for FreeNAS and have been regularly putting mirrored USB drives in my regular DIY NAS builds ever since, but not in an EconoNAS until now. In prior years, I was pinching as many pennies as I could and felt every little bit would help, but I think the value of having a mirrored boot device is far greater than the few dollars it winds up saving.

Final Parts List

Component Part Name Count Cost
Motherboard Asus Prime B450M-A/CSM specs 1 $76.99
CPU AMD Ryzen 3 2200G specs 1 $77.99
Memory Crucial Ballistix Sport LT 2666 MHz DDR4 DRAM Desktop Gaming Memory Kit 16GB (4GBx4) specs 1 76.99
Case Antec NSK4100 specs 1 $60.74
Power Supply Thermaltake TR2 430W N/A 1 $49.99
OS Drive SanDisk Ultra Fit 16GB specs 1 $6.49
TOTAL: $355.68

But what about Hard Drives, Brian?!

For the past EconoNAS builds, I’ve had a combination of size and price in mind where I’ve found the most amount of value, and I usually bought as many of those drives as would fit into my budget. However, as I attempted to explain in a blog earlier this year, I’m not buying hard drives for my NAS builds any longer. I’m doing this for a few good reasons, and while saving money was definitely one of the top reasons, what I’ve found over the years is that: How much storage you need and how much you are willing to spend on it is an incredibly personal choice. There’s value to everyone in how much storage they have, how much money they spend, and how much redundancy they get in the end.

What I’ve done in the EconoNAS builds in the past is spend around $50 to $75 per hard drive. And then depending on the drive’s price point, I’d put between four and six hard drives into the EconoNAS. For the most part, I think it’s been a successful enough formula. But I think that maybe I can do better by offering more options, but in offering those options I’d like to share a couple pointers that I’ve come to discover in building my own FreeNAS machines:

  1. There’s more value in buying more quantities of smaller drives: Larger almost always offer larger amounts of storage for your dollar, so they’re tempting. But, because of how arrays are constructed, more space gets reserved for redundancy on arrays with fewer drives. Example: 4x8TB drives vs. 8x4TB drives, in raid-z2 (two drives’ worth of redundancy). The array made up of 8TB drives will have 16TB of usable storage and the array made up of 4TB drives has 24TB of usable storage.
  2. I recommend at least two drives’ worth of redundancy in your array: Google for “RAID 5 is dead.”; there’s lots of good information/discussion out there. I don’t necessarily think RAID 5 is dead, but I value my data and time enough that I’ve simply moved to making sure there’s at least two drives’ worth of redundancy in all of my own arrays.
  3. As a DIY NAS builder using FreeNAS, your upgrade path is drive replacement: Replacing smaller drives with bigger drives and then eventually having the array grow to a larger size is your most likely upgrade path. Adding new drive(s) to an array is possible, but it’s conceptually tricky and potentially wasteful if done poorly.

Here’s a table of hard drive options. I did a bunch of hard drive shopping and built a few fictitious arrays for you to consider. What do you think of the options? Please share in the comments below?

Array Name Hard Disk Drive Model(s) HDD Size Total
Price
ZFS Level Net
Storage
Price
per Net TB
Dangerously
Economical
2x Seagate ST1000VM002
2x WD WD10EURX
2x Toshiba DT01ACA100
1 TB $194.60 raid-z1
raid-z2
raid-z3
5 TB
4 TB
3 TB
$38.92
$48.65
$64.87
Thrifty 3x WD WD2000F9YZ
3x Toshiba DT01ACA200
2 TB $383.97 raid-z1
raid-z2
raid-z3
10 TB
8 TB
6 TB
$38.40
$48.00
$64.00
Value 3x Toshiba MG03ACA400
3x WL 4TB
4 TB $425.82 raid-z1
raid-z2
raid-z3
20 TB
16 TB
12 TB
$21.29
$26.61
$35.49
Hoarder 6x WD Elements 8TB 8 TB $749.94 raid-z1
raid-z2
raid-z3
40 TB
32 TB
24TB
$18.75
$23.43
$33.13


Note: It’s probably worth pointing out here that 1TB, 2TB, and even 4TB drives are beginning to get “old” now. While I don’t know this for certain, I doubt any of the major hard drive manufacturers are making any drives of these sizes any longer. In exploring the reviews and comments left on drives of these size(s) across the Internet, they’re full of people who are reporting that their so-called new hard drive is refurbished, or worse, used. Similarly, what few new drives remain out there are probably starting to flirt with the end of their manufacturer’s warranty period. Caveat emptor!

Hardware Assembly, Configuration, and Burn-In

Assembly

One of the things I’ve always liked better about the EconoNAS is that it is usually easier to put together. My fascination with small motherboard form factors and small cases generally winds up resulting in working in much smaller spaces! Thanks to the cavernous interior of the Antec NSK4100, I didn’t have any of the problems that I had when assembling the diminutive DIY NAS: 2019 Edition. About the only complaint I had was that the two SATA ports in the corner of the motherboard pointed right in the direction of two of the case’s 3.5” drive bays. Routing a cable from so close to the drives was a bit problematic, but not a tremendous hassle.

Altogether, it took me a little over an hour to put the NAS together and have it booted up and ready to burn-in. Even for someone who’s built as many PCs as I have, I was impressed at how easily everything was put together.

Hardware Configuration

It used to be, when building DIY NAS machines out of consumer-grade equipment like the EconoNAS, there were all sorts of gotchas to watch out for. For example, difficulties in getting motherboards to boot from a USB device or having to trick the BIOS into thinking a keyboard and monitor were plugged in if you wanted to run headless. Thankfully over the years, those kinds of hassles have pretty much disappeared!

Pretty much the only thing I had to do in the motherboard’s BIOS was to go in and set the boot order to boot off the USB devices to run Memtest, then the FreeNAS installation, and finally to boot from the dual USB drive setup for the FreeNAS OS. The most frustrating part of configuring the hardware was that the BIOS was a graphical interface and I couldn’t be bothered to figure out if I could even use a keyboard to re-order the boot devices!

Burn-In

For the EconoNAS, I ran Memtest86+ to do my burn-in testing. Because I was busy and distracted over the weekend that I built the EconoNAS, I let Memtest86+ run for nearly 24 hours while I neglected the EconoNAS. In that time, it completed 10 successful tests with 0 errors. That was entirely overkill and unnecessary; 3 to 4 tests should’ve been more than enough for what I needed to prove.

I didn’t do it this time around, because I was too lazy to find my Ultimate Boot CD. But typically I use it to also run some sort of CPU stress-test to try and see how the machine performs under a load. Tormenting the CPU for 20-30 minutes nonstop is also a good way to try and force flaky hardware to come out of hiding and cause instability.

I did discover something a bit unsettling in my burn-in testing. The drives in my test array were all running quite warm with their operating temperatures being above 50 degrees centigrade (122 degrees Fahrenheit), which is at or outside the recommended operating temperature for enough of the drives I’m using in my test array for me to be concerned, but not concerned enough to stop any of my testing. If this were my NAS, I’d consider one of the following options:

  1. Space the drives out inside the case: there’s room for 10 drives in there, so I’d buy a pair of inexpensive 5.25” to 3.5” drive adapters and put some additional space between the drives.
  2. Add some additional cooling: between the case’s front fascia and the metal frame, there’s room there to add an additional fan. That fan would pull cool air from outside the case and hopefully push it across the drives to help cool them.
  3. Hard Drive Coolers: I’ve seen hard-drive-specific cooling before like this example or this other example, but I’ve never personally used them myself.
  4. Consider Other Case Alternatives: other cases might have easier or better solutions for maintaining your hard drives’ temperatures.

Of the above, I’d probably be tempted to go with the first option I listed. If I was really focused on getting the most out of my money, I’d probably wind up building a NAS with a few large hard drives, rather than my preferred solution of more smaller hard drives. With fewer drives, it’d be easier to space things out in the case and probably not have to worry about the hard drive temperatures.

FreeNAS Configuration

The installation and configuration of FreeNAS is getting to be a bit routine. When I built my first NAS, I was intimidated and concerned by my lack of knowledge and expertise with BSD or anything UNIX-related. I don’t really consider myself all that more knowledgable now, I’ve just benefitted from what an excellent product FreeNAS is and continues to become.

  1. Used the BIOS’s boot menu to boot from the USB device I put the FreeNAS ISO on.
  2. Selected “Install/Upgrade FreeNAS”
  3. Chose two SanDisk Ultra Fit 16GB drives from the available devices.
  4. Chose “Yes” on the warning about the partitions and data on those devices being erased.
  5. Entered and confirmed a password to be used for the root account.
  6. Chose “Boot via UEFI” for the FreeNAS Boot Mode
  7. Removed my FreeNAS Installation USB device and hit OK on the successful installation dialog.
  8. Used the Shutdown option to power down the NAS.
  9. Using the IP displayed in the FreeNAS console, I pulled up the FreeNAS web interface in a browser.
  10. Logged in using root and the password I picked during the installation.
  11. Under Network > Global Configuration, I set the Hostname to “econonas” and the domain to “lan” (the name of my local workgroup)
  12. Under Users, I created a new user which matched my username and password that I use on my local computers at home.
  13. Clicked Storage > Pools and clicked the Add button
    1. Selected all the hard drives listed under Available Disks and then moved them to the right under Data VDevs
    2. Named the new pool “econopool”
    3. Below the Data VDevs I picked Raid-z2
    4. Clicked the Create button.
  14. I edited the permissions of the econopool’s dataset and set the apply user to match my username and checked the apply permissions recursively option.
  15. Under Services I enabled the SMB service, started the service, and set it to “Start Automatically”
  16. I opened the SMB Configuration and made the following changes:
    1. Set the “NetBIOS Name” and “NetBIOS Alias” to: econonas
    2. Set the “Workgroup” to: lan
    3. Set the “Description” to: DIY NAS: 2019 EconoNAS
  17. Expanded Sharing and selected Windows (SMB) Shares and clicked the Add button.
    1. Set the Path to “/mnt/econopool”
  18. Under Tasks > S.M.A.R.T Tests I added two tasks for all the drives.
    1. A weekly Long Self-Test on Sundays
    2. A daily Short Self-Test
  19. On my desktop, I browsed to \econonas, opened econopool, created a file, modified that same file, and then deleted that file to test my permissions.

Benchmarks

Generally speaking, the two benchmarks I’m most interested in my DIY NAS builds is its power consumption and its throughput. Lots of other benchmarks could be relevant, but these two really stick out to me. With the DIY NAS: 2019 EconoNAS, I was a bit surprised by the power consumption. Regardless of what the EconoNAS was doing, it was pretty much consistently drawing the same amount of wattage. In fact, I was most surprised that its lowest power draw was when I would’ve expected to see the highest numbers! Perhaps I need to find a better tool to log and measure power consumption?

I was relatively unsurprised with the throughput on the EconoNAS. For a long time nearly all of my builds have been capable of saturating the gigabit interface on reads, and the 2019 EconoNAS is no different. What surprised me the most was that the DIY NAS: 2019 EconoNAS managed to outperform the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition in both random reads and random writes.

Power Consumption

Bootup Idle NAS Write Test
38.16 watts / 0.48 amps
37.85 watts / 0.45 amps
36.23 watts / 0.46 amps

Throughput

I’ve been all over the road each year, trying to test throughput on my DIY NAS builds. Each year I was simply focused on measuring the throughput for the build, but until a couple DIY NAS builds ago it dawned on me that I also wanted to compare the throughput between my different DIY NAS builds. That’s when I realized I was going to need a standardized set of steps to capture throughput, to document those steps, and then test each NAS build with them. Here’s that set of steps!

  1. Mapped a drive in Windows to the share on NAS that’s being tested.
  2. IOMeter
    1. Set up 2 workers per CPU core. On each worker I set the Maximum Disk Size number of sectors to a number that’d be 2.5 times as big as my total amount of RAM (~512 bytes per sector) and also picked the drive letter of the mapped drive as the Target
    2. Under Access Specifications, I created four different Global Access Specifications all with a 512KB block size:
      1. Sequential Read: 100% Read and 100% Sequential
      2. Sequential Write: 100% Write and 100% Sequential
      3. Random Read: 100% Read and 100% Random
      4. Random Write: 100% Write and 100% Random
    3. I quadruple-check each IOMeter worker because I almost always forget to update one when repeating these steps.
  3. I execute each of my four different tests (described above) individually in IOMeter against the drive mapped above.

I have yet to run these steps on an EconoNAS build, having skipped building one in 2018, but here’s how the EconoNAS stacks up against the other NAS builds I’ve captured these same results for over a gigabit network.

But Brian, You’re Wrong!

I’m not entirely certain that I’d agree with this assertion, but it has merit! Ultimately the “Y” in DIY stands for “yourself.” It’s not a do-it-Brian’s-way NAS, it’s a do-it-yourself NAS. The important part in there is that it’s an approach that lets you find the solution that works best for you! I like hearing about how people have decided to tackle their own NAS needs, even when it’s not totally aligned with what my opinion is.

I’ve taken some time to write up blogs on our new site, Butter, What!? about others’ DIY NAS builds. I enjoyed hearing and writing about Jim’s 100TB NAS as he’s working to fill it full of disks and @Sam010Am’s 48TB NAS in a Node 304 case. Instead of telling me what you think I’ve done wrong, tell us what you think is right about your own DIY NAS and why you made different choices.

Conclusion

Overall, I’m pretty pleased. I’ve managed to build a 6-bay, Ryzen 3 2200-powered NAS, with 16GB of RAM, running an incredibly popular storage OS, for just under $350 without any disks. When you compare that to other current 6-bay off-the-shelf NAS machines like the Synology DS1618+, the EconoNAS beats the Synology DS1618+ in nearly every regard. It’s got a much more powerful CPU, more RAM, it’s more upgrade-friendly, and—above all else—it’s less than half the price of the Synology. The DS1618+ is not without its own merits. It has a smaller footprint, it probably comes with better support, and—best of all—it’s already assembled and ready to go!

I’m a bit bummed that the case’s airflow is poor enough that my test drives couldn’t be stacked atop each other in the bottom six drive bays. While I’m quite confident that adding additional cooling or putting some space between the drives will solve this problem, one of the reasons I was excited about the EconoNAS’s case was the possibility that somebody out there might fill it full of hard drives and build a monster NAS from this blueprint. This seems unlikely now without an extra helping of that do-it-yourself spirit to find methods to cool the hard drives better.

Ultimately, that disappointment in the high drive temperatures was utterly obliterated by the fact that the EconoNAS performed nearly as well as the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition in the sequential read and write tests but then outperformed its expensive older brother in both the random read and write tests quite handily!

In past years, I tried to keep my EconoNAS builds under $500. I can’t remember ever achieving this goal, but I always felt that striving to meet it is part of what kept things affordable in the first place. Had I included hard drives in this year’s EconoNAS, I probably would’ve wound up further away from that goal than I’d ever been. But you know what? I built a much better NAS! This parts list has enough upgrade options down the road that I think you’ll spend less money than had I chosen cheaper parts. I think there’s a healthy amount of value in what I wound up buying for the 2019 EconoNAS.

What do you all think? Is this a good blueprint to recommend for the thrifty DIY NAS builder? Which parts would you have spent less money on? And more importantly, which parts would you have spent more money on? I’m interested to see your feedback in the comments below!

Giveaway

What does Brian do with all of these DIY NAS builds, anyway? Each time he gives them away to his readers! If you’re interested in the full details, please go check out my FreeNAS Giveaway page. But essentially, I will raffle the DIY NAS: 2019 EconoNAS off to one of my blog’s readers. There are multiple ways to enter the raffle by sharing on different social media platforms and referring your friends.

DIY NAS: 2019 EconoNAS

What the Shuck is Going on Here?!

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As a DIY NAS builder, there are no two ways around this fact: storage winds up eating up the biggest chunk of your budget. While the other components can be pricey too, the hard drives generally have accounted for 65-80% of the cost in nearly every one of my DIY NAS builds. I don’t generally wind up getting to practice what I preach in my own builds, but I try and encourage people to be methodical and look for special deals in buying their storage as a good way to save money.

However, lurking out there is a great tactic that I’ve never—until now—leveraged in either my own DIY NAS build or any of the ones that I have written about in my blog!


Shucking External Hard Drives

For some completely unknown—at least to me—reason, external hard drives are cheaper than their internal counterparts. Logically, it doesn’t make a whole lot of sense, as there’s more hardware (the enclosure) and cost to the manufacturer in creating an external hard drive. About the best guess I’ve seen to explain this is the fact that oftentimes, the external hard drives have shorter warranty periods than that of an internal drive. In the example below, a Western Digital external 6TB hard disk drive is 33% cheaper than something comparable as an internal drive!

So what does shucking an external hard drive mean? Effectively, it means removing the hard drive from its USB enclosure and then using it inside your machine—just like you would an internal hard drive.

You might be asking yourself, “What’s the catch?” Here are a couple reasons you might not want to shuck an external drive for your own DIY NAS build—or any other PC build either.

  1. You’re likely voiding your warranty: Once you crack open any manufacturer’s seal, that shorter warranty period I mentioned previously is very likely to have come to an end. If that hard drive winds up dying because it’s defective, you’re probably going to have a hard time getting the manufacturer to replace it.
  2. It may not even be possible: For all you know, when you crack open the case, you might find that the draconian manufacturer might have completely removed the SATA connector from the back of the hard drive and soldered it to the USB circuitry, making it next to impossible for you to use in your DIY NAS.
  3. It could look and sound easier than it really is: If I had a dollar for every time I watched a YouTube clip of someone doing something and said, “Hey, that looks simple!” and then four hours later I’m fed up and muttering profanities under my breath, I’d be a wealthier dude.
  4. You never know what you’re going to get: Often-times you’ll hear people share that they got a hard drive from a particular coveted product line ideally suited for DIY NAS duty to the delight and envy of even the snobbiest DIY NAS aficionados, but there’s nothing guaranteeing that you’ll have the same experience. You may just wind up cracking open the case and finding that it wasn’t the primo hard drive you’d read about elsewhere.

All of the above are risks. Assuming that all of the above are true, there are a few scenarios up there where you could find yourself up the proverbial creek without a paddle. There’s a risk-reward calculation in here that needs to be done. If the reward is great enough and the risks can be mitigated, I think it’s something that you should strongly consider.

Your best bit of risk mitigation is probably sitting right at your fingertips: open up Google and type in the external drive’s model number and “shuck” into the search engine and look over the first page or so of results.

Why the shuck haven’t you been doing this all along, Brian?

So why haven’t I been shucking external hard drives all along? I guess above all else, I have striven for simplicity and avoided risk in the creation of my DIY NAS builds. I’ve placed a premium in my builds, hoping to make them seem simple and straightforward. Shucking external drives was an added bit of complexity that I typically avoided.

Up until researching and writing this blog, my own risk-reward calculation said that the money saved on shucked drives was not yet significant enough to offset the risks and effort. However, the price differences between the external drives and their internal counterparts have reached the point to cause me to rethink my position on shucked drives!

Brian shucks an External 8TB Hard Drive

I’ve written about this before, but I’ve been in a long process of replacing all of my 4TB hard drives in my own personal NAS with 8TB hard drives. For the longest time, I’ve had six 8TB hard drives in my NAS and one 4TB hard drive. Because of the drives’ quantities, size, and my own raidz2 (two redundant drives) configuration, I’ve been stuck sitting at 20TB of actual usable storage and wasting 4TB of space on each of those 8TB hard drives.

I finally decided that I would upgrade to that seventh 8TB hard disk drive, and I’ve been keeping an eye on prices, waiting for a good deal to shuck my first external hard drive. Because I’m pretty risk-averse, I wound up doing quite a bit of of research into which enclosures were easiest to shuck and what kinds of hard drives people had found them in. I wound up going out and reading quite a few forum posts, watching a few YouTube videos, and reading quite a few posts on /r/DataHoarder before deciding to buy the Western Digital Essentials 8TB.

Based on my research, the Western Digital Essentials 8TB was likely to have a white-label version that was either the same or very similar to the Western Digital Red 8TB HDD. And based on the Western Digital data sheets for their various hard drive product lines (ie: Blue, Purple, Red, etc…), I wasn’t too concerned if the hard drive that I found inside the enclosure wound up being a bit different than what I’d learned from my research.

Conclusion

I’m a bit less conclusive in my YouTube video about shucking drives, but I now think shucking external hard drives is a no-brainer for DIY NAS builders! As of the writing of this blog, the Western Digital Red 8TB hard drive is over $80 more expensive than the Western Digital 8TB Elements Desktop Hard Drive. At that price, it’s 38 percent cheaper! I wound up picking an external hard drive that has a reputation for being easy to shuck, but it could get considerably more difficult and still wind up being an excellent value in my opinion.

What do you guys think? Does my experience have you interested in shucking drives for your own DIY NAS? Or, if you already used shucked drives in your DIY NAS, what has your experience been like? Have the shorter, and likely voided, warranties come back to bite you? Please let me know how things worked out for you in the comments below!

Turning my very first Quadcopter into Frankenbomber

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Back in 2017, a friend introduced me to the world of quadcopters. He even led a class and helped me build my very first quadcopter. Within the first couple flights, I was hooked! Very early on, I was very keen on building my own do-it-yourself photography quadcopter.

At the time, I wanted to build something comparable to the DJI Phantom 3 so that I could take some different kinds of videos and pictures for my blog. I wound up getting impatient and buying a DJI Spark to see if it would scratch my flying camera itch when I realized that I just wasn’t all that interested in the entire concept. I wasn’t producing the kind of content I wanted to with my drone and I didn’t really want to put the time into improving my skill.

Undeterred, we found something fun to do with my DIY 450mm quadcopter: we made it able to drop things! We dropped parachute men, we dropped a water bottle, and we capped it all off when we dropped a wooden stake that we found lying around the park:

At this point, I’d just begun tinkering around with flying my FPV quadcopters and learning that what I really wanted to do was go fast and do tricks, crash, upgrade, and repeat this as many times as my family and my bank account would allow. One day, Pat and I were flying quadcopters and we almost simultaneously said the same thing, that we thought we enjoyed what we were doing because it appealed to the tinkering and upgrading we’d done over the years with both cars and computers.

Unfortunately, this meant my DIY 450mm quadcopter wound up in a closet and was completely ignored the past two years or so. In fact, it was left alone for so long that I nearly ended up throwing it away because it had become quite obsolete. But then one day, someone asked me if I thought that the quadcopter could lift a certain six-pound object that’d been a topic of recent interest. The question got the wheels turning in my head, and I asked myself, “What would it take to modernize and maximize the performance of my abandoned 450mm quadcopter?

Upgrading and Modernizing the 450mm Quadcopter

By the sheer neglect that the 450mm Quadcopter experienced, the flight controller had become ancient and the ESCs were too dainty to handle the batteries that I was carrying around in my quadcopter bag.

At the time we built it two years earlier, the Naze32 at the heart of my 450mm quadcopter was pretty advanced in its age already. It only made sense that the first thing I’d try and upgrade was the flight controller. Thankfully, I had access to a number of old F4-based flight controllers, like the HolyBro Kakute F4 AIO V2 Flight Controller, as a result of upgrades or repairs to my collection of freestyle quadcopters.

Similarly, the ESCs that I was using before were both older and less powerful than what I was currently using. Their rating of 30amps was ideal for the two-to-four cell batteries (2S-4S) that I had been using, but I’d long since graduated to using six-cell batteries (6S) in all of my quadcopters and had divested nearly all of my 4S batteries long ago. Using some old LHI Wraith 32 ESCs that I had lying around made perfect sense.

I’d long since moved away from the Spektrum transmitter and receiver that I originally had in the quadcopter and moved to a FrSky receiver. But I had also upgraded from FrSky to the Crossfire Nano in a subsequent upgrade. While I could’ve used the FrSky receiver that was on the 450mm quadcopter from a prior upgrade, I opted to upgrade to the Crossfire on the quadcopter in case I wanted to enjoy the longer range benefits that the Crossfire yields.

The quadcopter never had any kind of first-person-view (FPV) capabilities. Thankfully, I had a whole drawer full of full-size Runcam Eagle FPV cameras as well as an extra AKK X2 Ultimate video transmitter (VTX) that served as a spare for the others on my favorite quadcopters. Adding FPV capabilities to the 450mm quadcopter was going to completely change the experience of flying the quadcopter. Consequently, I was excited about all the new possibilities that it was going to open up.

But wait, there’s more! I wanted a bird’s eye view of the payloads the 450mm quadcopter would be carrying! I had plenty FPV cameras just sitting unused in my drawer, including a spare Runcam Micro Swift. With the addition of a VIFLY dual FPV camera switcher, I would be able to toggle between a forward-facing camera or a camera facing down. Having that bird’s eye view of the payload being released was a feature that I couldn’t pass up.

We’ve tinkered quite a bit with GPS lately, not for any specific reason, but more because we could. Testing out the Betaflight GPS rescue mode was hysterical the first time that we tried it. Mostly, we liked having some of the GPS data on our other quadcopters, especially being able to know our speeds and distances traveled. I had purchased a spare GPS module in case I damaged the ones in my other quadcopters, so I figured I’d use the spare in my 450mm quadcopter. And when (or if) I needed my spare, I’d cannibalize it from the 450mm quadcopter.

Rounding out the upgrades were a couple different kind(s) of 3D-printed GoPro Session mounts that I zip-tied to different parts of the quadcopter. One pointed straight out, and the other pointed straight down. The quality of the DVR footage isn’t that great. Wat I was really going to want was some nice high-definition video of whatever was being released from the quadcopter’s payload mechanism. Assuming that I’m brave enough to put my two GoPro Session 5 action cameras on this quadcopter, I should have some pretty awesome footage of its flights and drops!

Having modernized and upgraded the 450mm quadcopter, I realized that the only thing it was missing was a name. Having reused old parts, scrounged up other abandoned parts, 3D-printed some parts, and even bought a new part or two, only one name really made sense to me:

Frankenbomber


Yes, yes, I know Frankenstein was the doctor and not the Monster, but Frankenstein’s Monster was a natural correlation for this new quadcopter, and calling it Frankenstein’s Monster’s Inspired Bombing Quadcopter was a bit of a mouthful. Besides, then I could call it Frank for short.

We tested, tuned, and tweaked Frank quite a bit. At first, we found out that the Crossfire Nano RX I rescued from my spare parts bin was defective. Frank was hitting his failsafe all too often and becoming unresponsive. The next time out, we had great reception between my transmitter and the quadcopter, but for some reason the dual FPV camera switcher was randomly switching between the two cameras to the point where it was a bit terrifying in the goggles to try and fly the quadcopter.

Eventually, we decided that the likely culprit for the random camera switch was electrical noise getting output. We put a large capacitor right at the power source and then a smaller capacitor between each of the four motors and the ESCs. Those five capacitors did the trick, clearing up all the problems that I was having with electrical noise.

Frank’s First Two Payloads

Having straightened out Frank’s electric eccentricities, the quadcopter was flying pretty stable, wasn’t completely losing control at any point, and wasn’t awful to fly. His flight’s characteristics were nowhere similar to my other freestyle quadcopters, but it was acceptable to me and more than capable of what I wanted it to do. That night we went to Target and shopped specifically for things that we could drop from Frank the next day. I wound up buying a dodgeball-like ball that came in a mesh net that was perfect for a few tries at the dropping from the quadcopter (Note: skip to 3:09 to bypass all my talking):

Frank’s Ultimate Payload was going to be a Disappointment

Ultimately, I had an incredible payload in mind when I first started modernizing and upgrading Frank. I had been issued a very specific challenge and I was really excited about conquering that challenge. The payload weighed around six pounds, and as a test, we decided to fill some old milk jugs up with six pounds of water. If Frank could lift, maneuver, and drop them, it’d be an excellent test of delivering the ultimate payload I had in mind. Unfortunately, those tests were a failure as you see in Pat’s “chase” quad video on YouTube:

Pat talks about it in a bit more detail in his video, Failure to Lift. We’re not really certain why this didn’t work out. He was able to lift the same amount using one of his Freestyle Quadcopters with much smaller propellers and shorter motors. Between the longer propellers and taller motors that Frank had, we figured it wouldn’t be an issue at all to lift a six-pound payload. But for some reason, it could not handle the payload of our milky water jugs.

Make sure you check out these two videos from Pat. He did an awesome job in going over some of our tinkering, plus there’s some pretty awesome footage that he filmed as a chase quadcopter for our drops!

Final Thoughts

I’m still quite disappointed that we couldn’t drop the ultimate payload, but I’m optimistic enough in our failure that I’m still protecting what that payload is going to be. We established that Pat’s 5.5” freestyle quadcopter using 5s batteries can lift six pounds of water. My pretty-equivalent quadcopter can fit even bigger propellers (up to 6”) and is powered by 6S batteries. We still think it’s entirely possible that we’d be able to lift and release a six-pound payload, we just might not have all the dramatic video from the two cameras.

Pat and I have already been brainstorming the possibility of building a better payload-release mechanism. An entire module that we 3D-design, use Pat’s CNC mill to cut it out of carbon fiber, and include its own battery, servo, and receiver. If we design the module well enough, it’d be simple to swap it from Frank to one of our other quadcopters.

What do you all think? Are we out of our minds for trying to find a way to lift and drop more than six pounds from a quadcopter? Do you have any idea why we might not have been successful? Let me know in the comments, I’m interested if you can help me figure out why I failed!

Printing and Assembling the MK735, a 3D-Printed DIY NAS Case

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Update (07/06/2019): Toby K. has announced the launch of his website, 3Dwebe.com. Even more exciting, that he’s now published the MK735 designs for you to start printing! The MK735 Mini Server / NAS Chassis can now be found for sale on MyMiniFactory.com for $27.95. Please go check it out and as you print your own MK735, let me know! I’d love to see them!

Prior to my DIY NAS builds, I mostly tried to hide my computers under or behind desks because I didn’t really want them to be seen. However, when I embarked in the blogs I wrote around building my first DIY NAS, I knew I’d want to build something I’d be showing off in pictures on my blog. The consequence to this shift in thinking was that choosing a case became much more important to me than it had been in the past. For that first NAS, I wound up picking the Lian Li PC-Q25B.

In the subsequent years, I found that I was envious of the Silverstone DS380B that I used in the DIY NAS: 2015 Edition and then even more envious of the U-NAS NSC-800 which I used the following year in the DIY NAS: 2016 Edition. I decided in 2016 that if in the process of building one of my DIY NAS machines that I became impressed enough by the hardware, I’d upgrade my own NAS to match what I was envious of. Subsequently in 2016, I upgraded my own NAS with my primary intention being to put it all inside the U-NAS NSC-800.

Since my upgrade in 2016, the U-NAS NSC-800 has been hands-down my favorite DIY NAS case. But when Toby K. sent me his 3D-Printed NAS case, the MK735, I knew that was all about to change!

What’s the MK735?

The MK735 is a 3D-Printed DIY NAS case that can hold up to a standard ATX power supply, up to seven 3.5” hard disk drives, two 2.5” SSDs (or 2.5” hard disk drives, probably), a MiniITX motherboard, and two half-height PCI-e cards. And as far as I’m concerned, it is a work of art. Beyond its artistry, it’s also something that I’d be able to make my own mark on with my own crude 3D-design skills. At first, something simple like vandalizing it with my site’s logo. But in the future? I’d like to incorporate the OoberLights as part of the MK735. I’m more than capable of finding a way to incorporate the Ooberlights right into the grill making up the door on the MK735 case.


Printing the MK735

There are no two ways around this, printing the MK735 took a really long time. A number of the prints were well over 24 hours long, with the longest print taking nearly 48 hours. Altogether, it took 227 hours, 11 minutes, and 44 seconds of printing time. And this figure only accounts for the successful prints—along the way there were a number of failed print jobs thanks to some power outages and carelessness on my own part.

However, my success rate on printing these parts was surprisingly high! Primarily, I have Toby K. to thank for that. Included with all the files for the 3D objects was a set of documentation and print settings matrix for each of the objects. The documentation was top-notch, and for each object it made suggestions on how to make sure that the object printed successfully. Without that documentation and those suggestions, I’m certain there would’ve been many more failed prints than I wound up experiencing.

Video of 3D-Printing the MK735’s Parts

Assembling the MK735

Again, thanks to the wonderful documentation that accompanied the MK735, assembly was really pretty simple—with a couple minor gotchas and one pretty big one! Nearly all of my troubles were self-inflicted. Everything was fitting together incredibly well right up until I had to assemble the door.

The first tiny, minor problem that I ran into is that the brilliant dovetail which is used to join the two grills together to form the interior of the case’s door did not fit together smoothly. I simply hadn’t paid enough (or any?) attention to cleaning the three objects up after they printed. They didn’t fit together well enough that I couldn’t even take them back apart to try and clean up the surfaces where the three different objects were coming together. Faced with the prospect of reprinting each of the objects, I gambled that I’d be able to apply a lesson I’d learned from one of my uncles, who taught me: “I’ve never met a problem that a big enough of a hammer can’t fix.”


To my eventual discredit, using the hammer here surprisingly worked! I was gentle, but firm enough that tapping the three pieces with the hammer slowly moved the dovetail and two grills to exactly right where they needed to be. This allowed me to finish assembling the door. I then tried to get the hinges mounted to the case and found out that they were equally stubborn, despite my best efforts trimming and filing the hinges down. I gambled again that I’d be able to install the hinges with the assistance of my hammer and began tapping them into place on the drive chamber. All four of the hinges snapped into place, and when I went to install the door, I noticed that on one of the hinges, there seemed to be some blue plastic fragments falling out of the hinge. Thinking that it was just leftover bits from what I’d trimmed, I shrugged my shoulders and kept working, trying to get the door-side of the hinges installed when all of a sudden, one of the hinges crumbled apart and broke into two pieces!

My brutish hammering had damaged the hinge and it fell apart! To make matters worse, I couldn’t remove the broken hinge. Not by using the clever hinge removal tool that Toby designed, not by using my favorite pair of pliers, and not even by trying to use a drill and a tiny drill bit in an effort to break apart the hinge. None of my efforts bore any fruit at all and it pretty quickly dawned on me that I’d need to start a new 48-hour print to replace my ruined drive chamber. Moreover, I’d have to disassemble nearly everything and start all over from scratch with the assembly.


Then bad turned into worse. In removing the butterfly pins that conjoined the power supply and drive chambers, I heard a sickly creak and crack as one corner of the power supply chamber came apart along with one of the layers of the 3D Print. Now I was in the hole two different 40+ hour prints, plus I needed to find a solution for my hinge problem! That same night, I set off on beginning my new prints and ordered new spool(s) of filament out of concern that I didn’t have enough (I didn’t) and that I’d break something again!

That week, I printed a new drive chamber, a new power supply chamber, a couple sets of new hinges, and a test object which included a hinge pocket to test-fit the hinges in before I risked putting them into the drive chamber again. I hit the reset button and on that Friday night, I set to assemble the case again. That’s when I ran into a new problem: these two objects came from the same roll of filament, but the butterfly pins I had used to join them before wouldn’t fit any longer! For some reason, this new roll of filament seemed to be over-extruding a tiny bit and I had to file down both the butterfly pins and their pockets before everything would fit together nicely.

When it got to the point of assembling the door and attaching it to the frame, I started off by using the test object which included a hinge pocket. My goal was to install and remove each of the hinges before I even attempted to install them in either the door or the case itself. I spent what seemed like hours using my deburring tool, some precision files, and my Xacto Hobby Knife set working on whittling the hinges down to the right size. After quite a bit of sweat and muttering of four-letter words, I finally was able to get 3 out of 4 hinges trimmed down far enough that they could be installed and removed from the test object. But on the fourth hinge, it eventually got stuck exactly the way a hinge got stuck in the case before! On the one hand, I was thankful it was stuck in a test object and not the chamber itself, but on the other hand it meant I was still no closer to having completed the case’s assembly.

Following some discussions with the case’s designer, Toby K., and then also with my fellow beta testers, we all concluded that the hinges might be a bit too snug. I learned that I’d done well filing down how wide the hinges were, but I didn’t think to do anything about their height, either. Other testers had to scrape off some of the height to get them to fit nicely. Having learned about this and removing and reinstalling his own hinges, Toby decided that he’d redesign the hinges by making them a touch shorter and then to also add a chamfer to reduce the friction.

The next day, I’d printed 3 different sets of the hinges: the original hinges, some tweaks of my own, and an early version of the new-and-improved hinges. I immediately set out to use the author’s modified hinges and dropped the hinge right into its pocket and it slid in really easily. Out of paranoia, I used the deburring tool and whittled it down a little bit on the corners. This time around, I snapped the hinges into the door first and then installed the door right onto the case. Much to my relief, it fit like a glove, and my MK735 was fully assembled!

Video of Assembling the MK735’s Parts

What’s Brian Think?

Was I happy that I decided to print the MK735 to be used with own NAS? Absolutely! Do not get me wrong, it was an expensive and sometimes frustrating endeavor. For starters, adding up the filament consumed for each successful print put me right at 800 meters of filament used. That’s about two and a half 1kg spools of filament to print the entire case, and that’s assuming nothing goes wrong with any of the prints. Filament runs about $20-$40 per 1kg spool, depending on the kind of filament used. Moreover, it also involves printing with two different types of filament. So, operating under the assumption that you didn’t have any filament at all, you’d be buying at least 4 new rolls of filament to complete this print. If you wanted to do multiple colors like I did, you might need additional rolls of filament for the new color. Beyond the filament, there’s some hardware—some optional—that you’ll wind up buying: various assorted screws, the internal USB ports, the power switch, and magnets to hold the lid shut. By the time you factored in all the added cost for filament that I spent reprinting the extra drive chamber, power supply chamber, hinges, and test objects, I wound up spending way more than the $199 that my U-NAS NSC-800 cost me.

Altogether, I spent a pretty decent amount of money on what went into the case. But what I spent in actual money is only a drop in the bucket when you consider the amount of time that I spent making my own modifications to objects, preparing to print each of the objects, monitoring each print, working with each object following the print to get it ready for assembly, and then finally all the work that went into the case’s assembly

By now you might be asking yourself, “Then why on Earth did Brian spend so much of his money and time 3D-printing his own DIY NAS case?”

I’m really proud of what I’ve wound up creating. I’ve enjoyed this entire process. Each time a print completed and I added it to my project table to take pictures of before the assembly, I had a fun time working out in my head how everything would eventually go together. I thoroughly enjoyed the actual assembly, even the parts that didn’t wind up working out that well. And the payoff of the final assembled product was the pride that I got knowing that it was something that I made using the tools at my disposal.


Thumbs Up! All the MK735 parts #1 All the MK735 parts #2 Fan and Power Supply Carriers Upper Door Gril and Grill Dovetail #1 Upper Door Gril and Grill Dovetail #2 Upper Door Gril and Grill Dovetail #3 Upper Door Gril and Grill Dovetail #4 Drive Rails Hinge Fully Assembled MK735 with top off #1 Fully Assembled MK735 with top off #2 Fully Assembled MK735 with top off #3 Fully Assembled MK735 with top off #4 MK735 with Door Open #1 MK735 with Door Open #2 MK735 with Door Open #3 Front Panel Grill Close-Up MK735 with Door Open #4 Backside of Door Close Up Fully Assembled MK735 #1 Fully Assembled MK735 #2 Fully Assembled MK735 #3 Fully Assembled MK735 #4 Fully Assembled MK735 #5 Fully Assembled MK735 #6 Fully Assembled MK735 #7 Fully Assembled MK735 #8 Fully Assembled MK735 #9


What about you all? Assuming you have a 3D printer or had easy access to one, would you go the route of 3D-printing your own DIY NAS case? Let me know if you would and why you decided that in the comments!

What’s Next?

Next up? Well, I’ll need to move my own DIY NAS and probably write a blog about that process! For starters, I’ll need a new power supply and network card. I figured this would be a good chance to maybe find a decent modular ATX power supply for my NAS. Because the NIC I bought for my inexpensive faster-than-Gigabit network is a full-height PCI-e card, I’ll also need to swap it out for a half-height card.

Additionally, I’ll need a new power supply. The little 1U power supply being used in my UNAS NSC-800 isn’t going to work in the MK735. I also figured it’d be nice to be back to using a common power supply type. Maybe there’ll even be some improvements both in terms of power efficiency and noise.

I can’t wait to have my NAS sitting in the MK735 over on my other desk!

The Future of my DIY NAS Builds

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Following nearly every DIY NAS build, I reflect on what went well, what didn’t go so well, and what I think the future holds. Almost nearly every year, I make some decisions on the kinds of changes I’d like to see in the future. Most of the time, a bunch of those brainstorms are forgotten as quickly as they’re created. But every now and then, a pretty decent idea will stick with me. The EconoNAS build is an example of one of the better ideas that came from these brainstorming sessions. I’d published the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition for all of about 30 minutes before I started brainstorming about what I’d do differently the remainder of this year.

As a result of this year’s brainstorming, I’ve got a few ideas that I’m going to begin to implement:

  1. I’m not buying hard drives anymore.
  2. Resume building the EconoNAS each year
  3. Grow the FreeNASGiveaway

I’m not buying hard drives anymore

You might be exclaiming to yourself, “Hold on a second, Brian. You do realize that the S in NAS stands for storage, right?!” You’re absolutely correct, but I’m still not going to buy hard drives any longer. With each and every NAS build, I routinely get feedback with regards to the amount of storage; that I spent too much money on storage, that I wasted money having so many drives, that I didn’t have enough redundancy by having too few drives, that the drives weren’t big enough, and other reasons. Ultimately, all of the comments are equally correct and incorrect. The amount of storage that winds up in your DIY NAS build is ultimately a very personal decision comprised of all sort of different opinions on value.

I’d always hoped that people would read my blogs, become inspired, and build their own custom DIY NAS to suit their own needs. But, enough people seem to take what I’ve picked out as some sort of assertion that the parts that I’ve picked out are somehow at the pinnacle of DIY NAS building when they aren’t and I certainly don’t think that. I value the parts that I picked and try to explain how I arrive at that valuation.

Moving forward, I’m going to stop buying hard drives for my DIY NAS builds. Instead, what I’ll do is build a little collection of hard drives that I use for the purpose of filling out the DIY NAS builds and testing what I’ve built. In the blogs, I hope to build a little section on hard drives and build a table of a few different hard drive sizes, array configuration, net storage, and cost. This’ll cover way more options and hopefully cater a bit to people who might have problems reconciling that their opinion and my opinion can coexist.

As an added benefit DIY NAS builds’ prices will compare much more directly to the off-the-shelf NAS offerings you see at your favorite retailers and websites. It doesn’t frequently come up, but from time to time I have been asked why my NAS builds cost so much more than these other NAS. And almost always, the answer has been because mine has hard drives and the other doesn’t.

However, the primary benefit is cost. In the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition nearly a third of the cost was hard drives alone and in the last EconoNAS build nearly half of the cost went towards storage. Somewhere along the line in 2018, Google made a change to their search algorithm and took a huge bite out of the traffic that my blog sees. Similarly, a big chunk of the revenue that I was seeing from the affiliate links in my blogs also disappeared. Saving up to a few hundred dollars on each NAS build will go a long way towards taking the sting off that bite!

Resume building the EconoNAS each year

In a post-EconoNAS brainstorm a couple years ago, I was discouraged that the DIY NAS:2017 EconoNAS and DIY NAS: 2016 EconoNAS were more alike than they were different, at the time it didn’t seem like there was a ton of wisdom to be putting together an EconoNAS on a yearly basis. However, what I neglected to factor together is that the inexpensive equipment needed to build these NAS machines is no longer being produced by the time I’m picking them out to put into NAS builds, their assembly lines have already been reprogrammed to churn out other newer components.

Ultimately, what happens is that the EconoNAS winds up having a much shorter shelf life than my other NAS builds. This year’s EconoNAS might not be all the differen than the following year’s EconoNAS, but it’s going to be more difficult to put together and find the parts. As a result, I’m calling a do-over on that particular brainstorm and moving forward I’m setting a goal to make sure there’s an EconoNAS build on a yearly basis.

Grow the FreeNASGiveaway

The first FreeNASGiveaway was terrifying, I spent a ton of money out of my own pocket back when my blog was barely generating enough revenue to cover my hosting expenses. I calculated at the time that it’d be a much better investment to give away one of my NAS builds rather than try and spend money on advertisements. For the most part, this gamble has paid off extremely well. And as a result I want to grow the giveaway. I had the giveaway partially in mind when I purchased my first set of the USB Drives with my Face on Them. I absolutely want there to be more than one prize in the FreeNASGiveaway, I’d really like to be giving away more than one of my NAS builds.

Ultimately, building an EconoNAS every year and not buying hard drives for future NAS builds are going to compliment this goal very well. For starters, I’ll be back to giving away two different NAS builds every year, restoring the FreeNASGiveaway to the largest its ever been. Additionally, I’ll have an extra few hundred dollars that I saved on hard drives that can immediately go towards growing the FreeNASGiveaway. How would you grow the FreeNASGiveaway? Would you focus on giving away a second DIY NAS and EconoNAS first? Or would you giveaway something different? I’ve got a few ideas of my own, but I’d love to see some of your ideas in the comments below!

Our Horrendous Experience with a Vivint Upgrade

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A few years ago, after our next-door neighbor’s house was burglarized, I casually set out looking for a home-security service provider to help us keep an eye on our home and deter those looking for a quick and easy buck. Mind you, I don’t harbor the delusion that a home-security system will prevent our house from being broken into, but I think at the very least that it’ll deter the lazy, unmotivated thief looking for a quick buck.

Unlike most of my other purchases, my search was not especially detailed or thorough. Primarily, I found that just about everybody hated their home-security providers. Typically, their disdain coincided with three complaints: problematic equipment, lackluster service, and contract terms. The online reviews pretty much taught me that home-security services were pretty much universally disliked, and despite what my common sense was telling me, I opted to continue. I wound up deciding to go with Vivint. At the time I liked some of their home automation options. At the time, I liked some of their home-automation options.

All things considered, we’ve been relatively happy Vivint customers for the past four years. The one time we accidentally set off the home alarm, I was impressed with how quickly they reached out to me on my mobile phone to check in on the alarm, make sure everything was okay, and help get everything straightened out. Unfortunately, that was all about to change.

Beware of the Door-to-Door Salesman

Towards the beginning of May, on a Thursday evening shortly after dinner, our doorbell rang. It’d been a long day, and I was weary from the combination of workday, the soul-crushing commute, and persevering through my toddler’s newfound skill of obstinance. I opened the door and was greeted by a SmartHome Pro from Vivint who happened to be in the neighborhood “a few streets over” helping get one our neighborhood’s new homes fitted with their system.

I’ve long held a policy that I don’t buy anything from anybody who comes to my house uninvited unless they’re children doing fundraising for whatever club, sports, or charity they’re interested in. But for some reason, this evening I was too tired to say my usual “No thanks.”

Vivint’s representative was polite enough and said he was checking in on nearby customers since he was in the area and noted that we had an obsolete (his words) control panel that he wanted to talk to me about upgrading. He also gestured to my Ring doorbell and jokingly said that they’d like to “do something about that.”

The terms he laid out seemed to make sense, and he said that there’d be no lengthening of our contract. Altogether, the cost of the upgrade was going to be a few hundred dollars financed over 5 years with no interest. And the bottom line (or so they said) was going to be no impact to our monthly fee. My wife reminded me later that night that our “new” fee was actually going to be $15–20 more than what we were currently paying because she had negotiated it down earlier in the year.

Regardless, after some crude number-crunching, most of the math worked out. We’d be paying a tiny premium for consolidating our smart doorbell down into the common service. While it was a price hike, it wasn’t sizable enough for me to immediately reconsider. The technician came out the next day and installed all the equipment.

But that’s when our troubles began

The next morning, Saturday, I awoke to an alert from the Vivint app: two sensors had lost communication with the panel—an ominous failure from the prior night. Being an IT guy, I rebooted the panel, cycled power to the sensors, and hoped it was a one-time fluke occurrence. But it was not. A few hours later, the same error recurred, and I reached out to the Vivint support team. I explained in detail that we’d just had the panel upgraded and what I’d done earlier. Despite complimenting me for my troubleshooting prowess, the technician repeated the steps I had done previously and rebooted the panel, temporarily resolving the issue. Over my protests, I was asked to reach back out should the problem reoccur.

Unsurprisingly to me, the issue was not resolved, and the same two sensors failed to communicate with the panel the following morning (Sunday), and I was forced to reach out to the Vivint support team again. This time I was informed that I’d need to swap in a new set of batteries in each of the failing sensors. I protested. I told who I was working with that I didn’t think batteries were to blame and asked what happens during the replacement of the panel that would cause the sensors to use enough of the batteries to require their replacement. I received a weak reply back that the batteries were probably on their last legs prior to the technician’s arrival and that the new panel taxed them just enough to warrant their replacement. Begrudgingly, I ordered the batteries from Amazon, completely unconvinced they’d be of any help.

Surprise, surprise, new batteries didn’t magically make the sensors start communicating.

Amazon had the batteries delivered the next day (Monday), and I immediately replaced the batteries in both sensors. Lo and behold, the new batteries did not fix the issue. I reached out to the Vivint support team, exasperated. This time the Vivint support person concluded that the sensors were bad, that they were under warranty, and that I’d just need to pay shipping and handling to get a new pair of sensors sent out.

At this point, I’d run out of patience of spending more of my own time working on what Vivint had done incorrectly in the first place. Silently fuming, I demanded that they cancel the upgrade. The only solution I would be participating in would be allowing a Vivint technician to come out, remove the equipment they’d installed, and reinstall the previously working panel. Their reply to this? A ridiculous offer to issue a credit for the shipping and handling of the replacement sensors.

I informed the support person that I’d already spent more than enough money (hundreds of dollars for the new panel, new doorbell, and batteries) and time (an entire weekend) on what they couldn’t set up correctly in the first place. My earlier experience with the Vivint support team gave me zero confidence that what they’d suggested would actually fix the issue. I stated at this point that what I wanted was to revert back to what had been working previously. Vivint’s reply? They’d look into whether or not this was possible and get back to me in the next 1–2 days.

Notice of Cancellation

I ended this conversation thoroughly worked up. I’d wasted a ton of time and aggravation into resolving something that I shouldn’t have even been needing to resolve. I kept asking myself “Why won’t Vivint just send out a technician to take care of this?” And I was doubly frustrated when I couldn’t come up with any reasonable answer. It also began to gnaw at me, wondering what the fine print of the contracts I’d signed the previous Thursday night might hold in store for me.

I began digging around the paperwork that had been given to us and other paperwork that’d been digitally delivered via email, when I stumbled upon this: a notice of cancellation, which outlined that exactly the cancellation I’d requested earlier should be possible.


Upon reading this, I was incensed. Nearly everything that the Vivint support team had me do so far—buy new batteries, ship me replacement sensors, and get back to me in a day or two—all would’ve eaten into the three business days outlined in this Notice of Cancellation document. Immediately, I filled this paperwork out, emailed it to the Vivint SmartHome Pro, and made plans to send it to their mailing address via registered mail.

Vivint says a downgrade is impossible, repeatedly

Despite what is described in both their Notice of Cancellation document, given to me at the time we made this purchase as well as what’s described as their “Right of Rescission”, Vivint has steadfastly repeated that what I want is not possible.

After installation, you are given a Right of Rescission (ROR) period, which allows you to cancel your agreement without penalty. Please refer to your agreement to find your ROR.

According to Vivint, downgrading from the panel that they upgraded me to is impossible; no reason or justification for this impossibility has been offered. Their statements that this is impossible don’t jive with their own documentation regarding cancellation. The email that I received after 1–2 days earlier this week said that it was impossible, and my reply back with the notice of cancellation did not generate a subsequent reply.

Last night, I reached back out to Vivint’s support to ask why this was the case and got the same weak answer of that it “was impossible” to revert back to the hardware that I was using before. I have yet to hear an explanation or justification of why it’s impossible. Pathetically last night, they offered to credit the purchase of the doorbell back to my account if I were willing to have a technician come out and repair the sensors. Had this option been offered a week ago, I would’ve gladly accepted it. But having been through Vivint’s support for the past week trying to get this squared away, I’m not even sure I want to be their customer any longer.

In speaking with that person, I was offered basically two options, neither of which would be the removal of the new hardware and reverting me to where I was at the very beginning of this.

  1. A technician could be sent to repair the new panel’s problems: I would’ve accepted this offer at any point during the initial weekend I spent resolving this. But having been through the wringer of Vivint’s support, I don’t want any of the components that they tried to upgrade. I don’t really feel like spending hundreds of dollars on the hardware, and right now I don’t really feel like spending hundreds of more dollars for the level of service that I’ve received would be a wise investment.
  2. I cancel my service and buy out the remainder of my service contract: We’re under contract until 2021, and to cancel our service, Vivint expects that we’d pay the totality of our contract.

They’re both expensive choices, but right now the latter of the two choices is looking best to me. I’ll have nothing to show for buying myself out of the contract, but it’ll cost me the fewest amount of dollars. Paying for the panel and continuing to pay for the “service” might potentially yield some benefit to us, but at this point I think it’d be shameful to reward Vivint for this horrendous upgrade and their refusal to honor their own Notice of Cancellation for orders like ours.


So what’s next?

I’m not entirely certain! Supposedly, I was going to get a phone call back sometime today from Vivint’s “Loyalty Department” in order to work on a solution. Instead of stewing and getting even more pissed off as more of the day went by, I sat down and started writing this blog. It’s about 5PM and I still haven’t had a call back, and as I understand it, that department will be closed in about an hour.

As it stands right now, I don’t feel like Vivint values me as a customer. If they valued me as a customer, they would’ve dispatched a technician immediately to resolve their problematic upgrade. If Vivint valued me as a customer, they would’ve worked to honor their Notice of Cancellation.

But because they don’t value me as a customer, Vivint’s chosen to not honor their Notice of Cancellation and “Right to Rescission”. And because they don’t value me as a customer, Vivint’s wound up ruining another day of one of my weekends as I sit here awaiting a phone call that I was promised.

As far as I’m concerned, I’m beginning to think it’s time that Vivint reaps what they sow, let this blog be the beginning. If you’re considering becoming a Vivint customer, please read over how they’ve treated me and factor that into your decision-making.

I’m still hopeful of a positive outcome. I hope that they call me back any minute now. I hope that whomever talks to me can make me explain exactly why it is that it’s “impossible” to downgrade back to the panel that I was using. And I sure hope that they want to find a way to keep my business and offer some sort of compromise that gets them out of honoring their own cancellation terms. When something happens, I’ll come back and post an update.

How about you all, do you have similar experiences with Vivint or other home-security companies? Please share your experiences in the comments!

The Dramatic Conclusion?!

After being promised a call back for the following day last Friday evening, I finally received a phone call from Vivint the Monday afternoon following the second weekend of this fiasco. The timing of the phone call worried me, since it came toward the end of my workday while I was still at my desk. I was a bit concerned that the entire building might wind up hearing unleash all my frustrations if Vivint continued to claim that they couldn’t abide by their own agreement, as had been evidenced by numerous previous contacts with their customer support the prior 10 days.

I gritted my teeth, answered the phone, and a pleasant-sounding person greeted me and asked me to describe what the issue was and how they could help. I explained that our upgrade hadn’t gone well and that we wanted to have a technician come back out and revert us back to the state we were in prior to the upgrade. And wouldn’t you know it, she scheduled a technican to come out the very next day! It turns out that after all, a downgrade was possible!

The following day a technician came out and did exactly what we’d asked for two weekends prior, he was able to revert us back to the state we were in prior to the upgrade in a matter of minutes. As far as I can tell, everything is working completely fine. While I am both relieved and satisfied with the conclusion, it really bothers me that this had to be so incredibly difficult. From my point-of-view, it seems like the Vivint support team’s efforts were delbierate and intentional to stall until I was outside of the cancellation period or frustrate me into just accepting the upgrade.

Thankfully, in the end, I did wind up getting what I wanted. I’m glad I put in the effort and stuck to my guns. However, I’m disappointed that this devolved into a situation that put a huge damper on two weekends as well as severely damaged my opinion of Vivint’s services. They’ve got a tremendous amount of work to in order to get me to agree to extend beyond whatever I’m currently contractually obligated to.

What about a 3D-Printed Mini-ITX NAS Case?

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Update (07/06/2019): Toby K. has announced the launch of his website, 3Dwebe.com. Even more exciting, that he’s now published the MK735 designs for you to start printing! The MK735 Mini Server / NAS Chassis can now be found for sale on MyMiniFactory.com for $27.95. Please go check it out and as you print your own MK735, let me know! I’d love to see them!

I love it when the Venn diagram of any of my interests overlap! It always results in grabbing a much tighter hold of my attention and an increase in the enjoyment of the time spent on whatever is managing to overlap multiple interests. A good example of this is my enjoyment of FPV freestyle quadcopters, which is a combination of many interests that I have; tinkering/upgrading, going fast, electronics, and gadgets. The other day I was marveling at how engrossed I’ve become with quadcopters, but given the number of my interests it touches, it makes perfect sense.

Another such example would be DIY NAS building and 3D Printing. When I assembled the DIY NAS: 2017 Edition, I noticed that the hard drives were running a bit warmer than I would’ve liked. I’d done some reading on the Internet and people had solved similar problems by crudely creating a duct to force more air towards the hard drives. Right off the bat, I knew that this was a problem I wanted to solve with my 3D printer, and I created a duct that screwed into the cooling fans that addressed my problem. While I really enjoyed building the DIY NAS: 2017 Edition, the enjoyment of its assembly pales in comparison to what I felt in the cooling duct’s design and creation.

Over the years, there have been a handful of comments in my various DIY NAS build blogs asking “Why don’t you 3D print your own NAS Case?” I almost always answered those questions with the fact that it was well beyond both my capabilities with 3D design as well as with the abilities of my first 3D printer. My first printer had a print surface of about 9” wide by 6” deep and 6” tall—even printing a case for a small MiniITX motherboard was going to require me to create and assemble many, many, many objects that would need to fit together in order to accommodate one of my NAS builds. To be frank, it always seemed like something miles beyond my ability.

As I was teasing the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition, the same question was posed to me in social media. But this time the person asking had an ace up his sleeve—he’d actually 3D designed and 3D printed his own NAS case! The creator, Toby K., shared a few details of his creation with me and asked me if I’d be willing to review it for my blog. I answered quickly that I’d be excited to review it once I’d published the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition blog.

Features

  • 100% 3D printable except for the power button, USB ports, screws, door lock, door magnets, and fans.
    • Printed out of: PLA, TPU, and PETG filaments
  • Designed for MiniITX motherboard, SFF height PCI-e cards
  • Full ATX power supply up to 165mm deep
  • Drive bay will handle 7 x 3.5” disk drives
  • Dimensions: (approximately) Width: 245mm, Depth: 230mm, Height: 360mm (with feet)
  • Cooling
    • Up to three 92mm or 80mm cooling fans (2 in rear for drive bay, 1 up front for motherboard)
    • Support for two 40mm fans on rear panel
    • Door grill allows for extensive ventilation
  • Door
    • Opens full 180 degrees
    • Keyed door lock (optional)
    • Magnetic door latch (optional)
  • Cover
    • Removes from front after opening door
    • Screw-less design

Grey grill from front #1 Grey grill from angle #1 It's really 3D Printed,  I swear! Grey grill from angle #2 Grey grill with door open Drive cage and power supply cubby Case rear from angle Motherboard tray #1 Motherboard tray #2 Drive cage drawer on rails #1 Drive cage drawer on rails #2 Removing drive cage drawer Drive cage drawer back in place Black grill from front #1 Black grill from front #2 Black grill from angle #1 Black grill from angle #1 It's really 3D Printed,  I swear!

Brian’s Initial Thoughts

All I could really say was “Wow!” as I opened the case and examined it the first time. Toby has developed and produced an amazing little NAS case. When the package came, I think I said “Wow” out loud for the first time about fourteen milliseconds after taking off the bubble wrap and then repeatedly continued it as I looked over the case. The case made a fantastic first impression, and things only improved from there.

The power supply and hard drives are installed in the bottom of the case and the motherboard sits atop of the case. The entire front of the case makes up the door. The front of the door is largely composed of a grill which should allow for awesome ventilation. Speaking of ventilation, I really like how the heat-producing components (CPU and power supply) are segregated from the drive cage and have their own fans.

The drive cage itself is amazing. The drive rails are made from TPU, a softer, more flexible filament, and the rails install on either side of the drives. The left-hand drive rail has cable management notches to help organize the SATA power and data cables. If you don’t want to fill up all 7 bays with drives, Toby has designed a container to turn an empty bay into a drawer for storage.

Toby’s printer (a Prusa I3 Mk3) prints so well that I’m a bit envious and shamed. I bought my own Prusa I3 Mk3 not too long ago and haven’t achieved nearly the print quality that Toby has with his printer.

I built a NAS out of it, sort of.

Over the last 7 years, my NAS adventures have led to me collecting a various number of extra hard drives and other NAS-related equipment. And thanks to my initial motherboard mishap in building the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition, I just so happened to have an extra motherboard lying around. The only thing I wound up lacking to build a computer was some extra RAM. However, I had all of the parts that I needed to evaluate how capable of a case Toby’s 3D-Printed Case would be. It may have looked great, but an equally important factor in evaluating the case is the experience of working inside the case.

The design of the case resulted in something that’s a tiny bit bigger than most MiniITX cases and considerably bigger than the extra tiny DIY NAS: 2019 Edition which I just finished building. That extra little bit of room made it so much easier to work in when compared to most of my other NAS builds. One of the really impressive feats of genius in the design of the case is how many small parts went together to form something bigger. The benefit of that is that you could literally assemble the case around the components if you needed to. In putting the motherboard into its tray, I had a hard time connecting the power button and LED to the motherboard, but the piece that was causing me inconvenience was easily removed via four screws.


A whole mess of parts HDDs installed in cage #1 HDDs installed in cage #2 HDDs and PSU installed in cage #1 HDDs installed in cage with power and SATA #1 HDDs installed in cage with power and SATA #2 HDDs installed in cage with power and SATA #3 HDDs installed in cage with power and SATA #4 Motherboard Mounted from side  #1 Motherboard Mounted from side  #2 Motherboard Mounted from rear #1 Motherboard, Fans, and PSU from Rear #1 Motherboard, Fans, and PSU from Rear #2 Fully Assembled #1 Fully Assembled #2 Fully Assembled #3 Fully Assembled #4 Fully Assembled #5

In assembling the NAS, I was a bit worried that I’d find out that the 3D-printed material was delicate, but instead I found that the case wasn’t actually delicate at all. It stood up to my wrestling and wrangling just fine. You should notice in the pictures that the grill on the front was switched out from a gray one to a black one. Toby felt that a black grill was a better-looking option (and I agree) and subsequently shipped me a pack of replacement parts to put into the case myself. Disassembling the case and reassembling with those new parts was quite simple and gave me further insight into how well the case was designed.

It can’t be that good, can it?!

Actually, yes, it can be, and it is! It’s a flat-out fantastic case. Of the different cases I’ve used over the years to build DIY NAS machines, it’s by far my favorite case so far. However, I will admit that when it comes to buying computer cases, there are two kind of people:

  1. People who think that a computer case is a piece of their interior design.
  2. People who want a simple beige box that they cram out of sight and out of mind.

If you are the second kind of person, I could see why you might not be nearly as excited about this case. For the most part, I’ve been a beige-box-case-guy most of my life. The only cases I’ve ever showcased in my office has been whatever have been holding my personal DIY NAS build: first the Lian Li PC-Q25 and now the U-NAS NSC-800.

And if you’re the first kind of person, I can’t imagine why you wouldn’t think this case is amazing. The case looks fantastic; it begs to be tweaked and customized to your perfection. It’d be super easy to customize, anywhere from somewhere simple like picking out your own filament colors and all the way up into tweaking the 3D models themselves to make your own changes. In comparison to most of my MiniITX DIY NAS builds, it was a pleasure to work in, and consequently it took me around half the time to assemble this compared to the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition. If this case were available on Amazon, I’d already have it penciled in for my next DIY NAS build.

What’s Next?

From what Toby explained to me earlier, his intention is to continue perfecting the case. His current focus is creating the documentation he feels is necessary to be able to print and assemble the case, which I applaud. Toby’s eventual plan is to sell copies of the 3D model’s files. It’s painfully obvious that Toby’s invested hundreds of hours into the design and printing of this prototype—Toby estimated that he’s probably invested at least 500 of his own hours into it. I want him to be successful in his efforts. While I don’t have the pricing details yet, I’d be inclined to buy a copy of the files out of admiration for what he’s done. Maybe that’d be a fun giveaway to do when they’re released?

Please stay tuned to my blog and social media accounts. I hope there are updates to be made to this blog, possibly additional blogs of my own as this project moves from a prototype to an actual product, and if we’re really lucky, I can convince Toby to write his own guest blog about his design and printing efforts—I think it’d be fascinating!

Update (3/22): Toby decided to start his own page on Patreon, 3Dwebe for Functional 3D Printable Designs. Due to in large part, the outpouring of interest in obtaining the STL files. If you’re wanting to stay in the loop, I think this is the place you’ll want to start monitoring. Hopefully Toby can even come up with a few unique ideas to provide you some one-of-a-kind modifications to the case to make yours stand out!

Conclusion

Let’s pretend that seven years ago in 2012, instead of building a DIY NAS machine, I opted to buy a 3D printer instead. Then a couple years later, I decided to build my very first DIY NAS. In this very plausible scenario, would I have used the same Lian LI PC-Q25 Case or the U-NAS NSC-800 that I eventually upgraded to? Or would I instead be slaving over my 3D printer investing the 120+ print hours and filament to print my own NAS case?

After working with Toby’s case, I think I’d be 3D printing my own NAS Case instead! I can’t really think of a better endorsement than this. In the long run, it’d be way more work and effort than buying an existing product, but I’d love the fact that I produced it myself and that it was one of a kind. I’d love to import it into OpenSCAD and find a way to add my face to it, somehow!

To top it all off, Toby managed to create a design which fit into a printable area of 9.84” x 8.3” x 8.3”. Those parts, when printed, could be assembled into the MiniITX-sized case, with 7 drive bays, room for a full-size ATX power supply, well-thought-out cable management, and excellent cooling. It’s just flat-out amazing.

What about you guys? Those of you with access to a printer, would you consider printing a case for your DIY NAS? Those of you without 3D printers, does this kind of object tempt you even further to buy your own 3D printer? Please let me know what you think in the comments below!

DIY NAS: 2019 Edition

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Update (10/20/2019): I was excited to post back in July that the price for the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition had dropped below $1,400, so I’m a bit bummed out to see that in October it has climbed back up to over $1,400. The motherboard, case, and power supply all saw significant jumps in their prices, but those were offset a bit by drops in the prices of two of the three hard drive models. As I understand it, companies like SilverStone and Supermicro have been impacted by the tariffs and as a result those costs are being passed along to their consumers. In the end, it’s always us consumers who pay for these tariffs—it’s incredibly disappointing to hear our governments claim otherwise.

Seven years ago, I decided I wanted to start backing up all of my computers to a NAS. In doing some research for that NAS, I couldn’t find a blog, forum post, reddit thread or anything else which contained the kind of guide that I was looking for. This fruitless search led me to blogging about my own experience in building my NAS. Based on the traffic from Google and search results for DIY NAS building keywords, I’d struck a chord that resonated with others, and I’ve been both upgrading my own NAS or building other different NAS machines ever since.

For each year’s DIY NAS build, I try and come up with a “theme” that drives the architecture of that year’s NAS build. For the most part, this is something that I do to help keep myself from building the same exact machine year after year. But I also like to do it because it causes me to tackle the concept from different angles. For example, up until last year, I’d never really dedicated much of the budget towards the CPU. My reasoning had always been that it doesn’t take much CPU to serve up files to my household, but there’s many people out there with needs for storage due to their interests in media streaming, and that DOES require more CPU. So in the DIY NAS: 2017 Edition, I designed the NAS with media streaming and/or virtual machine hosting in mind.

So what did I wind up deciding to do in 2019? Make it even smaller! I’ve always preferred making my NAS builds diminutive on account of my limited desk space. Additionally, what I saw as one of the biggest advantages in comparing a DIY NAS build to the off-the-shelf NAS offerings from folks like Drobo, QNAP, Synology, et al. is the fact that the off-the-shelf NAS machines are nearly always compact. In building my own NAS, I wanted to demonstrate that a DIY builder could do it better!

How would I wind up making my DIY NAS builds even smaller? Find out what’s taking up the most amount of space—the hard drives—and replace them with something smaller! The footprint of a single 3.5” hard drive is about 147mm x 101.6mm x 25.4mm for a volume of 376.77 cm3. The smaller 2.5” hard drive form factor is 100mm x 69.85mm x 19mm for a volume of 132.72 cm3. A 2.5” hard drive is roughly 35% the size of its bigger brother. When you multiply that savings in space across 8 HDDs, the amount of space saved adds up to something impressive.

CPU & Motherboard

As is always the case, the motherboard wound up being the component that I spent the most amount of time and energy into selecting. The DIY NAS: 2019 Edition was especially problematic in that my original motherboard choice wound up not working out so well! After going back to the drawing board, I was quickly drawn to the Supermico A2SDI-4C-HLN4F(specs). The motherboard’s features which really drew me in were:

Due to my own experience and the experience of at least one #FreeNASGiveaway winner, I was a bit reluctant to try the latest Intel Atom CPU. The Atom C2000 hardware flaw had bricked my own NAS twice as well as that of one of the winners. However, I’ve been eagerly anticipating the motherboards powered by the Denverton CPU to both hit the market and to come down into the price range I considered acceptable.

While I opted for the Supermico A2SDI-4C-HLN4F, I liked that the Supermicro family of motherboards contained several bigger, badder versions of the motherboard also available for DIY NAS builders:

Ultimately, I wound up feeling like the Supermico A2SDI-4C-HLN4F fit what I expected a NAS’ workload to be. However, I wouldn’t fault anyone for picking a more powerful and more expensive motherboard because they wanted their NAS to be able to act more like a Homelab server. This is exactly why I encourage people to build their machine themselves to suit their needs.

RAM

Among the areas that presented with a significant opportunity to create some savings over last year’s NAS, RAM was probably among the top. In last year’s NAS, I went over the top with nearly every component, and RAM was no exception. I spent nearly $900 on RAM last year, and a good chunk of that was most likely money not ideally spent. Among the “guidelines” you’ll find when building a DIY NAS that runs FreeNAS, you’ll see people make the recommendation of 1GB of RAM per TB of storage. However, hopefully you’ll also see people like me routinely pointing out that hard drive capacities have long outpaced RAM capacities and that this isn’t really pragmatic or sustainable.

I’ve routinely built my NAS machines with around the bare minimum recommended amount of RAM, and I’ve yet to wish that I hadn’t. Last year’s NAS wound up being an exception because I wanted the machine to be able to host and power virtual machines. For this year’s NAS, I chose to buy 8GB of Crucial 2666Mhz ECC DDR4 RAM. While I’ve long advocated the use of non-ECC RAM in the building of DIY NAS machines, it made sense to use ECC since I’d already chosen to pay the premium of an enterprise-grade motherboard. Had I gone a different route with the motherboard, I would’ve been more than happy to use non-ECC RAM.

Case, Power Supply, and Cables

Because I’d pinned my hopes on reducing the DIY NAS’ footprint around dropping from 3.5” hard drives to 2.5” hard drives, my hope to achieve my goal centered around my ability to find a case. Thankfully, I quickly found the SilverStone CS280 (specs). The SilverStone CS280 is a compact case which measures 221.5mm x 176.7mm x 301mm and a volume of 11.8 liters. It is considerably smaller in volume in comparison to last year’s NAS using the SilverStone DS380, whose volume measured at 21.6 liters. It may be small, but there’s still room inside for a Mini-ITX motherboard, eight 2.5” hard drives in a hot-swappable drive cage, and an SFX power supply. For what I was wanting, the SilverStone CS280B was ideally suited to my objective.

For the power supply, I wound up choosing the SilverStone ST45SF-V3 (specs). The 450-watt, 80 PLUS Bronze certified power supply was going to be more than enough to meet the needs of the power-sipping CPU and 8 hard disk drives.

Because of the proximity of the drive cage’s backplane to the power supply, my collection of straight-through SATA cables wound up being too tight of a fit for me to be comfortable with. Thankfully, the SAS cable that came with the Supermico A2SDI-4C-HLN4F had really thin cables, but for the other 4 ports on the drive cage’s backplane, I was forced to use SATA cables with a 90-degree bend for the first time ever. Which is ironic because I’ve always despised the 90-degree bend connectors whenever I’ve gone to build some sort of computer, whether it be a NAS or not. I opted to get a pack of the Posta SATA III Cable (5 pack) with 90 Degree Plug. The 90-degree bend wound up being perfect to clear the close proximity of the power supply in the SilverStone CS280.

Speaking of the proximity of the power supply and the drive cage, I also wound up deciding that instead of stretching and tugging power cables across the already crowded space in the drive cage, that I’d buy a SATA-to-Molex Power Adapter for providing power to the drive cage. This allowed me to route two of the separate accessories’ power cables from the power supply to either side of the case and keep the drive cage clear for just the SATA cables.

Unfortunately, the SilverStone CS280B had two USB 3.0 ports on its front panel, but the Supermico A2SDI-4C-HLN4F lacked an appropriate header to plug the connectors into. I was a bit disappointed in this, because I would’ve loved to have kept the FreeNAS OS drives plugged into the front of the case.

Update (10/20/2019): I wound up getting an email from someone at SilverStone and he was nice enough to make a few suggestions on how this problem could be solved. While I was aware that solutions like these existed when I built the NAS, I felt that I’d already over-extended my NAS building budget. But in reflection, it seems like a mistake to not share the potential solutions! In my opinion the best solution would be a USB 3.0 to USB 2.0 Adapter Cable at $9.99. But if you’re looking to get full USB 3.0 speeds out of the front panel connector, you’ll need a USB controller like the SST-EC04-E ($50.87) or the SST-ECU05 ($57.16). Personally I prefer the adapter cable because: I like preserving the motherboard’s PCI-E slots for potential growth down the road for additional SAS/SATA controllers, I don’t think there’s a huge penalty to the lesser throughput of USB 2.0, and I like that it’s the least expensive option._

Storage

FreeNAS Flash Drive

I had some pretty exciting plans for the USB drive in the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition. I was hoping that through Tindie I could buy and resell my own USB drives. I’d even spent a few hundred dollars buying some USB drives, but in the course of trying to use them for building this NAS, I knew I was going to have to change my approach! I went back to my favorite maker of USB drives, Sandisk, and opted for their SanDisk 16GB Ultra Fit USB 3.1 Flash Drive (specs). Over the years I’ve been impressed with the Sandisk Fit-line of USB drives, and they’re routinely well spoken of when it comes to their use as a FreeNAS OS drive.

NAS Hard Disk Drives

I wound up picking 2.5” hard drives primarily because of their small footprint and the goal of building an even smaller NAS than in the years before. But beyond that, the 2.5” hard drive was designed to be used in laptops and other mobile uses, and as a result they tend to give off less heat and be more durable. All things considered and all things being equal, the 2.5” hard drive would seem to be a pretty ideal choice for a zealous DIY NAS builder such as myself.

On the other hand, 2.5” hard drives are also much more expensive per terabyte than their 3.5” cousins. This year, the average price per hard drive for the 2.5” drives was in the neighborhood of $85 each. At that same exact price point, there is a plethora of 3TB and 4TB hard drives in the same neighborhood for the price. Wouldn’t a zealous DIY NAS builder such as myself also want to get the most amount of storage out of his budget too? Wouldn’t he or she jump at the chance to double their storage at the same price?

When I built my very first NAS, I was pretty focused on building a DIY NAS with a footprint that was small. In planning that NAS out and shopping for parts, it never even occurred to me to take a peek at 2.5” HDD prices or to try and do the math to figure out how much space a smaller hard drive would wind up saving me. If I had a time machine and I went back to share all of my experience building these different NAS machines, do I think I would’ve wound up building a NAS with 2.5” HDDs or would I stay with 3.5” HDDs instead? I’m not really sure what the answer to that question would wind up being!


2019 NAS Hard Disk Drives
Drive
Seagate ST2000LM003   
WD Blue WD20SPZX   
Seagate Barracuda ST2000LM015   
Size
2TB
2TB
2TB
Quantity
2
3
3
Price
$77.95
$69.55
$84.89

The hardest part about picking out the hard drives this year was the fact that I couldn’t use the Backblaze Hard Drive Stats to help guide my decisions in picking out hard drives! The most interesting part in picking 2.5” hard drives as my preferred form-factor is that I’d have something that would be ideally suited for the person who wanted to build a NAS out of SSDs. There are generally one or two people out there each build who ask questions about building a NAS out of SSDs. I’d still never do it because the network itself is going to be a bottleneck, but barring some astronomical development in affordable network technology, this NAS build will be the closest I ever come to building an SSD-based DIY NAS.

As a suggestion for other DIY NAS builders, I’d reccommend that you potentially avoid the Seagate ST2000LM003, not for any quality reasons, but because it appears that it’s now discontinued and the price has steadily climbed ever since I purchased two for the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition. I originally paid $99.99 for the drives. At any price above this, I’d suggest looking for something else.

Final Parts List

Component Part Name Count Cost
Motherboard Supermico A2SDI-4C-HLN4F specs 1 $364.95
Memory Crucial 8GB (2x4GB) 2666MHz DDR4 ECC specs 2 $47.00
Case SilverStone Technology CS280B specs 1 $210.70
Power Supply SilverStone Technology ST45SF-V3 specs 1 $94.99
OS Drive SanDisk 16GB Ultra Fit USB 3.1 Flash Drive N/A 2 $6.40
Storage HDD 1 Seagate ST2000LM003 specs 2 $77.95
Storage HDD 2 WD Blue WD20SPZX specs 3 $69.55
Storage HDD 3 Seagate BarracudaST2000LM015 specs 3 $84.89
SATA Power to Molex Adapter SATA Power Adapter Cable 15-pin SATA Male to 4-pin Molex Female N/A 1 $6.99
SATA Cables Postta 18-inch SATA III Cable w/ 90 Degree Locking Latch (5 Pack) N/A 1 $7.39
TOTAL: $1,418.43


All Parts SilverStone Technology CS280B #1 SilverStone Technology CS280B #2 SilverStone Technology CS280B #3 SilverStone Technology CS280B #4 SilverStone Technology CS280B #5 Assorted 2.5 HDDs #1 Assorted 2.5 HDDs #2 Supermicro A2SDi-4C-HLN4F #1 Supermicro A2SDi-4C-HLN4F #2 Crucial 2x4GB DDR4-2666 RDIMM #1 Crucial 2x4GB DDR4-2666 RDIMM #2 Brian's Face USB Drives (2x16 GB) SilverStone Technology ST45SF-V3 SAS / SATA Cables SATA Power Splitter and MolexAdapter


Hardware Assembly, BIOS Configuration, and Burn-In

Assembly

Assembly was painful, literally! The metal insides of the SilverStone CS280 were not cut in a fingers-friendly fashion, and in my efforts of getting all the SATA cables plugged in, I wound up cutting the knuckles on both of my thumbs! I sliced them open the exact same way on the sharp edges of the interior of the case. Having worked in and built dozens, if not hundreds, of computers in my early career, the only time I found sharp edges like these were in extremely inexpensive cases. I was a bit disappointed that SilverStone opted not to further machine their cases and make them a bit more finger-friendly.

My usual complaints about working in small spaces also presented themselves in the building of the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition. While I love the smaller footprint that the NAS wound up taking up, I did actually almost equally disliked the act of assembling it. You’re operating in limited space, and you’ve got a ton of repetitive tasks like plugging in SATA cables. I typically build the NAS, then burn it in, which is what I did this time. But I regretted when I had to repeat all that work. I disliked when I had to swap out the first motherboard that I picked out.

Working in a small space certainly upped the degree of difficulty on the assembly, and the razor-sharp edges inside the case sure upped the sense of danger when working on the case, but the only actual problem that I wound up running into was with the straight-through SATA cables I mentioned above. The size of the connector and direction of the SATA cable was just too long to close the narrow gap between the power supply and drive cage backplane. Thankfully, the SAS cable that came with the motherboard had thinner cables which actually worked, but my traditional straight-through cables simply would not fit. I wound up replacing the straight-through cables with cables that had a 90-degree bend.

BIOS Configuration

Generally speaking, I like to keep the BIOS configuration as close to factory defaults as I possibly can. The DIY NAS: 2019 Edition was no exception. I made the usual edits by making sure that legacy USB support was enabled, legacy boot and UEFI (usually the dual setting) were configured, and that the only boot devices set up in the boot order were the USB devices. Under ideal, and usually typical, circumstances, I save my changes and exit the BIOS and then boot right up and start running a memory test or some sort of CPU torture test.

I’m not sure how detectable it is in the assembly’s video, but I ran into two problems immediately in the BIOS and then on the next boot.

  1. Only 6 of the 8 drives were showing up in the BIOS.
  2. I couldn’t seem to get the machine to boot up off either my Ultimate BootCD flash drive, or my Memtest86+ flash drive.

The first problem was pretty quickly solved via some Google-searches and tinkering in the BIOS. Under Advanced > Chipset Configuration > South Bridge Configuration, there’s a setting called Flexible I/O Selection. I experimented with the different values and ultimately found that setting it to Mini SAS/SATA[3:0] caused the other two missing drives to show up in the BIOS. I captured all of the changes I made in the BIOS in a video that’s embedded down below with the FreeNAS installation.

The next problem nearly ruined an entire weekend! For whatever strange reason, I couldn’t get the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition to boot up off of any of my usual USB drives that I use in these builds. Primarily, neither my Ultimate BootCD on USB or my Memtest86+ on USB from Memtest.org would work. I recreated each of the USB sticks, I confirmed they worked on other machines, I tried setting the Boot Mode in the BIOS to Legacy, UEFI, and Dual. But no matter what, nothing seemed to work. I even went as far as to open a ticket with Supermicro’s support. One of my patrons, Uffe Andersen, commented sharing some of the same pain that he went through with a motherboard from the same family and suggested that I try a UEFI USB boot device to see if that worked, because it had worked for him.

Burn-In

All I’m trying to do when I burn-in one of my NAS machines is to look for any kind of defect in the computer’s hardware or how it’s been put together. My primary concern is that once I button up the case, I’d rather not have to open it up until I’m doing some sort of upgrade. I tend to zero in on the motherboard, CPU, and RAM in how I burn-in the DIY NAS. The fact that I have redundancy amongst the hard drives makes me feel a bit cavalier about testing the hard drives.

Both of my favorite tools (UltimateBootCD or stresslinux) for doing the CPU burn-in aren’t bootable via UEFI. When discussing my challenges with my good friend, Pat, he mocked me a bit and said he was surprised that I did any kind of CPU burn-in as part of my testing. Pat’s an excellent sounding board and he’s also probably correct—modern CPUs have the ability to throttle themselves back based on their own thermal budget, so the kind(s) of burn-in testing I’d been doing in the past wasn’t really providing much benefit. I opted this year to not do any kind of CPU burn-in testing.

MemTest86

Due to challenges presented by the motherboard with regards to booting USB drives, I wound up using a different flavor of Memtest86 for the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition. I wound up downloading PassMark’s Memtest86, putting it on a boot drive, and using it instead. I’m not entirely certain what the exact differences between PassMark’s Memtest86 are and the open source Memtest86+ actually are, but as far as I could tell, they’re very similar. I expect that they share a common ancestor and can be used pretty interchangeably. I ran PassMark’s Memtest86 with pretty much the bone stock defaults and monitored its execution via the IPMI interface.

Altogether, it used all 4 of the CPU core to make 4 passes of the 12 different testing algorithms types supported without any reported errors. Usually, I just like to leave the memory test running for day(s) on end while I work on other things, but the free version of PassMark’s Memtest86 is sadly limited to 4 passes, which should be more than enough to give me a warm and fuzzy feeling about the RAM installed. I got an especially warm and fuzzy feeling, as I had to do this several times as I tried to capture it in video for the blog.

FreeNAS Installation and Configuration

In past years, I usually list out step by step the number of different things that I do and accompany that with screenshots of part(s) of those steps. But for this year, I opted to handle it a bit differently. I recorded the entire setup, from the initial boot all the way up to testing out the file shares from one of my Windows machines. If you’re interested, I captured all of the step by step BIOS, FreeNAS installation, and FreeNAS configuration content into its own blog post—check it out!

Benchmarks

I have two primary concerns with regards to the performance of my NAS: throughput and power consumption. The throughput of the machine determines how useable it winds up being, and the power consumption typically determines how much it’s going to wind up costing me on a recurring basis. Naturally, there are untold other possible metrics that could be of interest; these are just the two that wind up of the most interest to me. Are there any benchmarks that I’ve overlooked? Please leave a comment for any metrics you’d like to see in future NAS builds.

Power Consumption

I measured the power consumption of this year’s NAS by using one of my Sonoff S31 smart outlets. For nearly two days, I had it keep track of the amount of power drawn. During those two days is when I performed the bulk of the configuration, tinkering, and the throughput testing.


In those 47.47 hours, the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition consumed 1.98 kWh of electricity, which is really damn close to being 1.0 kWh per day. I extrapolated the hourly consumption (.0417 kWh) over an entire year and arrived at 365.355 kWh for the year. Assuming I understand the details of my electricity plan, I’m paying around 12.5 cents per kilowatt-hour today. At that rate, it’d cost me around $50.00 to power this NAS for an entire year.

Throughput

Over the years, I’ve tried to test throughput using a number of different methods— crudely timing large file transfers early on and in most recent years using tools likely IOMeter. Each of the different NAS builds has been unique in its own way, but I like using the throughput to compare the builds from the past to the builds of today. I started off with the results from last year’s benchmarks, but omitted the 10Gb results since the Supermico A2SDI-4C-HLN4F only contains the four Gigabit interfaces.

  1. Mapped a drive in Windows to the share on NAS that’s being tested.
  2. IOMeter
    1. Set up 2 workers per CPU core. On each worker I set the Maximum Disk Size number of sectors to a number that’d be 2.5 times as big as my total amount of RAM (~512 bytes per sector) and also picked the drive letter of the mapped drive as the Target
    2. Under Access Specifications, I created four different Global Access Specifications all with a 512KB block size.
      1. Sequential Read: 100% Read and 100% Sequential
      2. Sequential Write: 100% Write and 100% Sequential
      3. Random Read: 100% Read and 100% Random
      4. Random Write: 100% Write and 100% Random
    3. I quadruple check each IOMeter worker because I almost always forget to update one when repeating these steps.
  3. I execute each of my four different tests (described above) individually in IOMeter against the drive mapped above.

Overall, I’ve come to expect that a typical DIY NAS built today should be readily able of saturating a gigabit link during the read test, and this year’s NAS did not disappoint in this regard. I enjoyed monitoring the sequential throughput test in both my desktop machine’s task manager, but also in the new dashboard in the latest version of FreeNAS:


The hardware in this year’s NAS compared to last year’s DIY NAS build are a bit less powerful, and that shows up in the benchmarks. The performance over the Gigabit in the sequential write, random read, and random write tests were all lower than both last year’s NAS and my own NAS. Given the amount of money spent, I expected this year’s NAS to have a hard time competing against last year’s NAS. The fact that this year’s NAS didn’t outperform my own was a bit disappointing.

FreeNAS-11.2-U2

I was very interested in building the most compact DIY NAS as I could reasonably achieve, but I was almost nearly as interested in evaluating the latest release of FreeNAS, FreeNAS-11.2-U2. The DIY NAS blogs wind up being an excellent way for me to tinker with the latest version of FreeNAS, before deciding to upgrade my own NAS. The release notes from the FreeNAS 11.2-Release r talk extensively about the new Anuglar-based UI, which has been something I’ve been looking forward to for quite some time.

I really enjoyed using the new user interface. I didn’t have any issues or concerns about FreeNAS’ legacy interface, but it was quite dated. Among the biggest improvements of the new UI is the improved dashboard. Being able to log into the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition and get a live peek at what was going on with the NAS was really helpful in the creation of this blog.


Given what I’ve experienced of FreeNAS-11.2-U2, I’m looking forward to getting it installed and configured on my own NAS here in the very near future!

Conclusion

Once I’d finished building the NAS, installing and configuring FreeNAS, and working through some of the throughput benchmarks, I stopped and asked myself two questions: Did I successfully build a smaller NAS? Was it worth it? Ultimately, I think the answer to those questions is going to be a matter of opinion. The DIY NAS: 2019 Edition is absolutely much smaller than my own personal NAS and my own NAS was built to have small footprint. In order to answer the two questions above in the affirmative, you’re going to definitely need to place a considerable amount of value on the NAS’ footprint.

Considering the small footprint was the primary objective in the design of this NAS, you can understand why I think the answer to both of those questions is yes. But aside from the footprint, I think I’d still be inclined to answer in the affirmative when considering these features:

  • 10TB of total storage with two drives’ worth of fault tolerance
  • Intel Atom C3558 CPU: 4-core 2.20GHz CPU with 17W typical TDP
  • 8 GB of ECC DDR4 RAM
  • 8 Hot swappable drive bays

Comparing the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition to other off-the-shelf solutions reinforces this pretty well. Off-the-shelf NAS systems like the Synology DS1817 ($829), QNAP TS-873-4G-US ($863), and the ASUSTOR AS6208T ($749) all wind up being more expensive than a diskless version of the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition which comes in around $737. With the exception of a feature or two, the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition is both friendlier to your bank account and has a more powerful feature-set than these other comparable NAS systems.

Ultimately, space is what mattered the most in this blog, and I think that I’ve been unquestioningly successful in that regard. The amount of space that the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition takes up (11.8 liters) is nearly half of what the prior year’s NAS used up (21.6 liters). It’s been quite a few years since I built my NAS, but given what I know of my data-storage habits today, I probably would have been quite comfortable to trade a bit of storage capacity to build an even smaller NAS.

But Brian, your conclusion is WRONG!

Fear not, my disagreeable NAS enthusiast, my conclusion basically boils down to a question of value and opinion—there’s plenty of room for conclusions other than my own. I wouldn’t blame any of you for accepting a larger footprint in order to move up to 3.5” hard drives, which are definitely a better value than their diminutive 2.5” siblings. Simply swap out the SilverStone CS280 case from this year’s NAS for something like the SilverStone DS380B. And then spend about $75 to $100 per drive on about 8 hard drives. It looks like there’s a healthy variety of 4TB drives in this price point. I wouldn’t blame anyone for wanting to double the storage capacity by also nearly doubling the volume.

Giveaway

#FreeNASGiveAway Update

05/10/19: Everybody please put your hands together and join me in congratulating Tim Malone, who’s been lucky enough to be the winner of the #FreeNASGiveaway of the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition. I drew Tim’s name earlier today when the contest concluded. Thanks to everyone who joined the contest, you all made this the biggest #FreeNASGiveaway to date and I can’t wait until the next give away!

For more details please check my FreeNAS Giveaway page. In short, you can enter several different ways by interacting in various ways with my social media accounts. For fun, I’ll be ending the giveaway on my birthday (May 10th) and announcing the winner that weekend. Thanks for helping make the giveaway successful, and good luck!

DIY NAS: 2019 Edition

DIY NAS: 2019 Edition’s BIOS Configuration, FreeNAS Installation, and Initial FreeNAS Configuration

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For those of you who preferred the in-depth, step by step recounting of what I did in the configuration of the DIY NAS: 2019 Edition, you’re in luck! Not only did I record it all in video, but I also captured that list for you too.

Ultimately, I only opted to remove this from the main blog after how long that blog had grown to be!

Please make sure to leave a comment down below if you value what’s captured below, I’m strongly considering excluding it from future builds’ blogs in an effort to keep things more concise.

FreeNAS Installation and Configuration

BIOS Configuration

  1. Connected to the IMPI Interface using the SuperMicro IPMIView Utility (link)
  2. Launched the iKVM Viewer to remotely control the machine and powered it up.
  3. Make the following changes in the BIOS
    1. Advanced Tab
      1. Under Chipset Configuration > South Bridge Configuration changed the “Flexible I/O Selection” to Mini SAS/SATA[3:0]
      2. Checked for the presence of all 8 SATA HDDs in the Bios, when only 6 showed up, I saved my changes and exited the BIOS.
      3. Went back into the BIOS and confirmed all 8 SATA HDDs were being detected now.
    2. Boot Tab
      1. Set the “Boot Mode Select” to: UEFI
      2. Set the “UEFI Boot Option #1” to: UEFI USB CD/DVD: UEFI: SanDisk (the name of my FreeNAS install device)
      3. Set UEFI Boot Option #2 through UEFI Boot Option #9 to Disabled

FreeNAS Installation

  1. Used the BIOS’ boot menu to boot from my FreeNAS USB Installer
  2. Picked to “Install/Upgrade FreeNAS”
  3. Selected the two SanDisk Ultra Fit 16GB drives (da1, da2) as the targets of the installation.
  4. Chose “Yes” on the warning about the partitions and data on da1 and da2 being erased.
  5. Entered and confirmed a password to be used for the root account.
  6. Chose “Boot via UEFI” for the FreeNAS Boot Mode
  7. Removed my FreeNAS Installation USB device and hit OK on the successful installation dialog.
  8. Used the Shutdown option to power down the NAS.

With FreeNAS now successfully installed, I went ahead and powered the machine on. Given my difficult with Legacy Boot mode not seeming to work on the motherboard, I was a tiny bit nervous that the machine would not cleanly boot off the USB drives I’d just installed FreeNAS on. But, given the choices I had made, I was still pretty confident it’d boot right up—and that’s just what it did!

FreeNAS Configuration

  1. Using the IP displayed in the FreeNAS console (10.7.0.19), I pulled up the FreeNAS web interface in a browser.
  2. Logged in using root and the password I picked during the installation.
  3. Went under “Storage and Pools” clicked Add and Create Pool
  4. Selected all the hard drives listed under Available Disks and then moved them to the right under Data VDevs
  5. Named the new pool “storage”
  6. Below the Data VDevs I picked Raid-z2
  7. Clicked the Create button.
  8. Created a dataset called “share” under the “storage” pool.
  9. Attempted to set permissions on the share dataset, and realized I hadn’t created a Group yet to assign the permissions to.
  10. Created a new group under Accounts > Group and named it “shareusers”
  11. Added a new user named “brian”, set the password to match what I’ve used on my local machine(s), and added that user to the “shareusers” group.
  12. Validated that the “shareusers” group had my new account listed as a member.
  13. Under Services> SMB, I started the service and set it to “Start Automatically”
  14. I opened the SMB Configuration and made the following changes.
    1. Set the “NetBIOS Name” and “NetBIOS Alias” to: diynas2019
    2. Set the “Workgroup” to: lan
    3. Set the “Description” to: DIY NAS: 2019 Edition
  15. Opened Sharing > Windows (SMB) Shares and clicked the Add button.
    1. Set the Path to “/mnt/storage/share”
  16. Went back to Storage > Pools, expanded the storage pool and chose to Set Permissions on the “share” dataset.
    1. Changed the group to “shareusers”
    2. Chose the option to “Apply permissions recursively”
    3. Checked Confirm and clicked the Continue button.
  17. Opened Network > Global Configuration and made the following changes
    1. Set the “Hostname” to: diynas2019
    2. Set the “Domain” to: lan
  18. Under System > Advanced I chose the “Enable Autotune” option.
  19. Under Tasks > S.M.A.R.T Tests I added two tasks
    1. A weekly Long Self-Test on Sundays
    2. A daily Short Self-Test
  20. On my desktop, I browsed to \diynas2019, opened share, and created a file, modified a file, and deleted a file to test the permissions.

Because I’m nitpicky, I probably should’ve created my user and sharegroup before creating the storage pool and share dataset. If I had taken step-by-step screenshots like I did in prior years, I would’ve just juggled those screenshots around into a more efficient set of steps. I suppose I could’ve done the same by carefully editing the video, but I didn’t think it was worth all that effort to disguise that I wasn’t perfectly efficient in the FreeNAS configuration.

Integrating my 3D Printer into my Home Automation

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Back when I was involved with our local makerspace, I really wanted to help show off the 3D Printers that the makerspace had purchased. At that time, access to the printers and Pat’s 3D-Printing expertise were among the best reasons to become members of the makerspace. As the guy with the keys to the makerspace’s social media accounts, I really wanted people to share pictures and videos of everyone’s 3D prints so that we could showcase what our members had been up to.

In fact, I was so enamored with the printers’ outputs—I had expressed my intentions of finding a way of capturing pictures of what people printed and automate the sharing of those prints. Unfortunately, the enclosed-style printers that they had at the makerspace (and that I bought to use at home) simply prevented getting a decent picture of the items printed on the printers.

Fast-forward a year or two and I’ve decided to upgrade my old Qidi Technology I — Dual Extruder 3D Printer with something newer. I opted to upgrade to a Prusa I3 MK3 3D Printer. Among its features was an open design that was infinitely more friendly to capturing the time-lapse photography that I had been wanting to do previously.

Enter OctoPrint, Octolapse and OctoPrint-IFTTT

OctoPrint

For those of you unfamiliar, OctoPrint is a fantastic print controller for your 3D printers. OctoPrint runs on a Raspberry Pi and manages your 3D printer; it’s got a fantastic feature set and I can’t recommend it enough to anyone who owns a 3D printer. The moment I’d completed my purchase of the Prusa I3 MK3, I started shopping for a Raspberry Pi, and wound up buying a CanaKit Raspberry Pi 3 B+ Kit whose job it’d be to manage my new 3D printer.

My first 3D print on the Prusa I3 MK3 was Pat’s Mounting Brackets with Swivel for Logitech C270 and C920 Web Camera which works so nicely with the inexpensive IKEA Tertial work lamp.

After a little bit of work, I had my Logitech C922 Webcam attached to the Tertial work lamp in place of the lamp, and mounted to my 3D printer’s stand and ready to record time-lapses of all my prints.

OctoPrint has some time-lapse photography features built right into it, but it’s pretty basic. The pictures are taken throughout the print job and the print head was frequently in different positions, oftentimes obscuring the printed object. I’d dug around the Internet a bit and learned that people have improved the quality of their own prints’ time-lapse photography by working with their slicing programs to generate the appropriate GCode on every single layer change. What they do is send the code to move the bed and print head to the same position on each layer and get that to coincide with the time-lapse photography.

Octolapse

Thankfully, there are options for people who don’t want to have to monkey with settings to insert custom GCode on every layer, like me. A very handy OctoPrint plug-in exists named Octolapse. As I understand it, Octolapse interprets and analyzes the GCode uploaded and handles inserting the correct GCode to improve your time-lapse videos. Just working through the few set-up steps improved my videos dramatically!

But after viewing a few of my first couple time-lapse videos, I still had a few complaints about what I was seeing:

  1. Too Darn Bright: My beer-stein lamp is right next to the 3D Printer, and while it’s a fantastic source of light to keep my office lit to what my specifications are, it was washing out everything in the videos of my prints.
  2. Lights turning on and off!: Over the duration of my prints, my home automation had been turning the lights in my office on and off. In the time-lapse, every now and then you’d see a chunk of frames with the lights in either position and it annoyed me that the videos’ lighting wasn’t consistent the whole way through.
  3. Not Automated Enough: I was thrilled to be getting the time-lapse of my 3D prints captured, finally. But I was still disappointed that I was having to manually find the files, download them to my PC, and share them on my own.

The first two problems were solved pretty easily by just manually turning the lights off and keeping them off during my prints. But as I was turning lights off and manually uploading time lapse videos to my social media accounts, I wondered what it’d take to do this in a more automated fashion.

OctoPrint-IFTTT

And then, out of nowhere, OctoPrint let me know via a notification that a brand-new plug-in had been published, OctoPrint-IFTTT. I’ve been using IFTTT for a smorgasboard of automated activities for years now and I eagerly installed the new plug-in and got started tinkering with it.

Now about those lights!

For whatever reason, the combination of my Logitech C922, the colors of my various rolls of IC3D ABS filament, and my nearby beer-stein lamp resulted in all of my videos looking really washed out. White filament almost appeared to be glowing and was so bright, it was devoid of features. Bright green filament looked practically pastel, and my red filament wound up looking pretty pink. So the first thing that I did was configure OctoPrint-IFTTT to call IFTTT’s Webhook with OctoPrint’s PrintStarted event and then tied it to the trigger I had set up to automate turning off my beloved beer-stein lamp.

Making it a bit darker in the room when my 3D printer is active improved the filament from looking to be so washed out and I was mostly happy with the results. I think ultimately I probably need to do a bit of research and experimentation to find the best lighting for these time-lapse videos, but I’m pretty excited that I can automate that solution to be triggered by my 3D printer’s activity.

Publish the Time Lapse Videos Automatically

After studying the supported OctoPrint events, I knew what I wanted to take a look at next: the MovieDone event. On the surface, it seemed like it’d be a simple task to trigger IFTTT to post my time-lapse videos to Twitter using IFTTT, but in the initial releases of OctoPrint-IFTTT, that wasn’t possible. The file’s path and name was just being passed as a string on to the IFTTT actions and not the actual file content.

I reached out to the developer, tjjfvi on GitHub, and submitted a feature request. The developer was gracious enough to offer me a few tips and in the process we found that (for what I’d been looking) IFTTT was expecting to be passed a URL where the file was accessible. We came up with a solution that’d allow IFTTT to pull it directly from my OctoPrint server, but that’d involve exposing my OctoPrint server to the Internet and that seemed like not the greatest of ideas.

However, by the end of the day, the developer had put out a beta version using the file.io file-sharing. If asked, the OctoPrint-IFTTT would upload the file to file.io, which returned a URL that could then be sent on to IFTTT for performing whatever action you wanted done. Unfortunately, I couldn’t find any actions in IFTTT that’d upload video clips to either my Twitter account or blog’s Facebook Page. Ultimately, I wound up adding IFTTT’s competitor, Zapier, into the mix as well. In the end, what I built seemed convoluted, but it worked!

Brian’s Time-Lapse Sharing Automation

  1. OctoPrint-IFTTT creates a webhook to IFTTT at the completion of creating a time-lapse video and triggers activity that uploads the video to a particular folder in my Google Drive account.
  2. Zapier monitors Google Drive and when a new file is uploaded to the specified folder, it is uploaded to my YouTube channel.
  3. Using IFTTT, I created two new actions to share the YouTube video’s URL to both Twitter and Facebook.

What’d I think?

I was—and still am—pretty excited to have achieved a goal that I’d had in my head for quite a while. But in this particular case, most of the value wound up being found in the travel—not in the actual destination. I knew that automating the sharing of these videos would be formulaic, but I wound up being turned off by what showed up in my social media feed. I also didn’t quite appreciate how convoluted the automation wound up being. I was reliant on far too many different services working independently of each other in the hopes of accomplishing my task.

In the end, a somewhat convoluted process to generate a formulaic result seemed like a bad combination to me. However, I did decide to go ahead and keep the initial step that results in the time-lapse being uploaded to Google Drive. Having the time-lapse videos up on Google Drive would make sharing them to social media quite a bit simpler.

What’s Next?

To be honest, I don’t know! Regardless of the fact that I wasn’t a huge fan of how it turned out, I’m still pretty in shock that one of the more meaningful goals was achieved. I probably would appreciate adding a couple new IFTTT applets to send me a Pushover notificationon my mobile devices when a print finishes or failed. I think maybe it’d be neat just to keep a Google Spreadsheet to log all the different prints I’ve done and how long they took. What sort of functionality would you like to see triggered in IFTTT by your 3D printer?